Other articles

  1. Kalevakirjat

    (Tegurala introduction: I have a D&D setting I have developed, which I call Tegurala. When I started working on it, I decided to use real world languages for the fantasy languages, for naming language consistency without having to create a bunch of new ConLangs. Giants use Uralic languages)

    The …

    read more
  2. Word Family - Camel

    June theme: Domestic Animals 🐕

    Teaser

    camel, gamma

    Full Text

    • Semitic *gamal- camel
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic جمل jámal camel
          • Maltese ġemel camel
        • Northwest Semitic
          • Aramaic
            • Classical Syriac ܓܡܠܐ gamlā’ camel
          • Canaanite
            • Hebrew גמל gamal camel
            • Phoenician
              • Ancient Greek κάμηλος kámēlos camel
                • Greek καμήλα kamíla camel
                • Latin camēlus camel
                  • Old French
                    • English …
    read more
  3. Word Family - Olive

    May theme: Plants 🌱

    Introduction

    In which "olive oil" is redundant.

    The Greek and Armenian words are often interpreted as being from a Mediterranean substrate word. But then there's the Slavic *lȏjь: "tallow, suet". And then the Old Chinese lɯw: "oil, grease", which is plausibly from the Tocharian equivalent of Slavic …

    read more
  4. Word Family - Flower

    May theme: Plants 🌱

    Teaser

    bloom, flower, flourish, belladonna, blade, chlorophyll

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- flower
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰléh₃e-ti
        • Germanic *blōaną to bloom, to flower
          • West Germanic
            • Old English blōwan
              • English blow [1]
                • English full-blown [1]
            • Frankish
              • Dutch bloeien to blossom, to develop, to flourish
            • Old High German bluoen
              • German blühen to …
    read more
  5. Word Family - Pterodactyl

    April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

    Introduction

    Pterodactyl. Two cool realizations about Greek "pter-". 1) "Helicopter" is so strongly segmented as "heli-copter" in English, it's fun to realize that the Greek construction is actually "helico-pter": "twisting (helix) wing". 2) More recently I realized it's an awesome example of Grimm's Law: apply …

    read more
  6. Word Family - Ankylosaurus

    April theme: Dinosaurs and Friends🦕

    Introduction

    Ankylosaurus! And as an unexpected bonus, I found Azhdarchid pterosaurs deep in the family, too. Pterosaurs are probably my very favorite Mesozoic animals (stay tuned for next week!). Also in this family: various spiders and snakes and fears and sins in various languages.

    I … read more
  7. Word Family - Bleak

    January theme: 98, 99, 100! 💯

    Teaser

    blue, beluga, flame, bleach, black

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- to shine
      • Proto-Indo-European *bʰoltós
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian báltas white
          • Latin Balthae
            • Medieval Latin Balticus
              • English Baltic
        • Illyrian balta swamp
          • Albanian baltë mud
          • Balto-Slavic *balta
            • Latin Balthae
            • Slavic *bolto swamp, mud
              • East Slavic болото boloto
                • Russian боло …
    read more
  8. Word Family - Weasel

    January theme: 98, 99, 100! 💯

    Teaser

    virus, virulent, weasel, wisent, bison

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *weys- slime, poison, flow, melt
      • Proto-Indo-European *wisós action noun, zero-grade variant
        • Hellenic *wihos
          • Ancient Greek ῑ̓ός īós poison, venom
            • Greek ιός iós venom, virus
        • Indo-Iranian *wišás
          • Indo-Aryan *wíṣas
            • Dardic *biṣá
              • Kalasha biṣ poison
            • Sanskrit व …
    read more
  9. Word Family - Arbiter

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝

    Teaser

    Europe, Maghreb, Arabia, Erebus

    Full Text

    • Semitic *[ʕ/ġ]rb to depart, to set
      • Central Semitic
        • Arabic ġaraba
        • Northwest Semitic
          • Aramaic ערובה ʿrōbā sunset, evening, (Sabbath) eve
          • Canaanite
            • Phoenician *'irōb
              • Homeric Greek Εὐρώπη Eurṓpē Western shore of the Aegean,\nmainland Greece\n(as opposed to …
    read more
  10. Word Family - Phoenix

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝️

    Teaser

    Punic, phoenix, Phoenicia, Tisiphone, bane

    Full Text

    • Egyptian fnḫ carpenter, woodcutter
      • Egyptian fnḫw woodcutters, Canaanites, Syrians
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀡𐀛𐀑𐀍 po-ni-ki-jo trade commodity of some sort
          • Ancient Greek φοῖνῐξ phoînix Phoenician, purple or crimson, date palm, a guitar-like instrument from Phoenicia, phoenix
            • Latin Poenus a Phoenician …
    read more
  11. Word Family - Egypt

    December theme: Pre-Classical Mediterranean 🏝

    Teaser

    Ptah, Egypt, Hephaestus

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ptḥ to create?, to begin?
      • Egyptian ptḥ Ptah, self-created divinity of craft and creation
        • English Ptah
        • Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ Temple of the Soul of Ptah, Memphis
          • Mycenaean Greek *ai-ku-pi-to
            • Ancient Greek Αἴγυπτος Aíguptos Egypt, the Nile
              • Latin Aegyptus Egypt
                • Western …
    read more
  12. Word Family - Venom

    November theme: Spiders 🕷

    Teaser

    win, wean, wish, wont, Venus, venereal, venerate, Edwin, Baldwin, Winfred, venom, wonder, winsome, venial

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁- to love
      • Proto-Indo-European *wn̥h₁néw-ti? variant ne imperfective
        • Germanic *winnaną to strive, to work, to gain, to win
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic
              • Ostrogothic 𐍅𐌹𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 winnan to suffer
          • North Germanic …
    read more
  13. Word Family - Moon

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    measure, meal, moon, month, medicine, modem, accommodate

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *meh₁- to measure
      • Proto-Indo-European *miméh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *mimáHti
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit मिमीते mimīte to measure, to mark off
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬨𐬍𐬨𐬀𐬚𐬁 framīmaθā set the limits of, assign, authorize
      • Proto-Indo-European *moh₁ros big, great
        • Celtic *māros …
    read more
  14. Word Family - Star

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    arid, star disaster, ash

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁s- to be dry, to burn, ashes, hearth
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₁seh₁(ye)-ti stative
        • Italic *āzēō
          • Latin āreō I am dry, I am parched, I am withered
            • Latin āridus dry, withered, arid, shrivelled, uninspired
              • Western Romance
                • Italian arido arid, barren …
    read more
  15. Word Family - Sleep

    October theme: Nighttime 🌃

    Teaser

    sleep, avalanche, lip, lobe

    Full Text

    • ?
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)leh₂b- to hang loosely, to be weak, lip, to lick
        • Proto-Indo-European *(s)leh₂be-ti to fall down? to relax? primary verb
          • Germanic *slēpaną to sleep
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐍃𐌻𐌴𐍀𐌰𐌽 slēpan to sleep
                • Crimean Gothic schlipen to sleep
            • West Germanic …
    read more
  16. Word Family - Persimmon

    Bonus: Indigenous Peoples Day

    Teaser

    Saskatoon, persimmon

    Full Text

    • Algic *mene berry
      • Yurok menomen Juneberry
      • Algonquian *mi·na berry
        • Central Algonquian
          • Cree ᒦᓂᐢ miinis (wild) berry or fruit
            • Cree ᒥᓵᐢᑲᐧᑑᒥᐣ misa˙skwato˙min saskatoon berry
              • English saskatoon
                • English Saskatoon
          • Menominee -men- fruit, berry, grain
          • Ojibwe -min berry
            • Ojibwe niibiminaa high-bush …
    read more
  17. Word Family - Night

    October theme: Night time 🌃

    Teaser

    naga, naked, gym, night, nocturnal

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *negʷ- bare
      • Proto-Indo-European *nogʷó-s naked thing, naked one noun
        • Balto-Slavic *nōˀgás naked
          • Lithuanian núogas naked
          • Slavic *nȃgъ naked
            • East Slavic
              • Russian наго́й nagój naked
            • South Slavic
              • Serbo-Croatian наг nag naked
            • West Slavic
              • Polish nagi naked
        • Indo-Iranian …
    read more
  18. Word Family - Community

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    municipal, common, communicate, Mithra, mix, mutant, miss

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *mey- to exchange, to intermingle
      • Proto-Indo-European *moyno-s
        • Italic *moinos
          • Latin mūnus service, duty, obligation, public office
            • Latin mūniceps citizen (duty-taker)
              • Latin mūnicipium township, town
                • Western Romance
                  • Italian municipo town council, town hall, government office
              • Latin mūnicipālis …
    read more
  19. Word Family - Folk

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    complete, supply, full, poly-, folk

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁ to fill
      • Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁-ti
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πλῆτο plêto
      • Proto-Indo-European pleh₁st sigma perfective
        • Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥-pleh₁st in-fill (perfective)
          • Indo-Iranian *HápraHt
            • Indo-Aryan
              • Sanskrit अप्रात् áprāt to fill
      • Proto-Indo-European *pípleh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek πίμπλημι pímplēmi …
    read more
  20. Word Family - Guest

    September theme: Community 🏘️

    Teaser

    guest and host, hospitality and hostility

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European gʰes- to eat
      • Proto-Indo-European gʰese-ti primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit घसति ghásati to eat
          • Iranian
            • East Iranian
              • Avestan 𐬔𐬀𐬵 gah to eat, to gorge
      • Northwest Indo-European gʰóst-is guest, stranger ~"eater"
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *gȏstь guest
            • East Slavic
              • Russian …
    read more
  21. Tengwar for Te Reo (Māori)

    Tengwar for Te Reo

                      

    "My language is my awakening, my language is the window to my soul."

    I have a D&D setting I have developed, which I call Tegurala. When I started working on it, I decided to use real world languages for the fantasy languages, for naming language …

    read more
  22. Word Family - Alien

    August theme: Science fiction 🤖

    Teaser

    else, Alsace, eldritch, allo-, allele, alias, alien, alienate, altruism, alter, adulter, altercation, other

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂el- beyond, other
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos other, another
        • Old Armenian այլ ayl another, other, alien, foreign, also, however
          • Armenian այլ ayl other, but
          • Armenian էլ ēl also, too, anymore
          • Armenian …
    read more
  23. Word Family - Android

    August theme: Science Fiction 🤖

    Teaser

    android, Andromeda, Nero

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂nḗr (adult/married) man
      • Proto-Albanian *nera
        • Old Albanian njer
          • Albanian njeri man
      • Hellenic *anḗr
        • Ancient Greek ἀνήρ anḗr (adult) man, husband, mortal
          • Greek άνδρας ándras (adult) man, husband
          • Ancient Greek ἀνδρο- andro-
            • English andro-
              • English android
                • English droid
            • Ancient …
    read more
  24. Word Family - Robot

    August theme: Science Fiction 🤖

    Teaser

    orphan, robot

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₃erbʰ- to be part of (a group or family)?, to owe allegiance to?, to change owernship?
      • Hittite ḫarp- to associate with, to go over to, to change allegiance
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₃orbʰyo-m inheritance? plural: <*h₃orbʰyéh₂>
        • Celtic *orbyom inheritance plural: <*orbyā>
          • Old Irish …
    read more
  25. Frithugairns at Adrianople

    Wed 27 June 2018

    In my undergraduate Early Medieval Europe class at university, one of the assignments was a fictional source document. I wrote a piece of a fictional Visigothic epic about the Battle of Adrianople that had been preserved in a Spanish monastery.

    Frithugairns at Adrianople

    Introduction

    This fragment of the Frithugairns at …

    read more
  26. Word Family - Celts

    June theme: Celtic Iron Age

    Introduction

    June's theme is linguistic effects of the Celtic Hegemony of the early Iron Age. The rest of the month will focus on words that were borrowed from Gaulish into Latin (things like very iconic Latin word gladius being borrowed from Gaulish, which appears in …

    read more
  27. Word Family - Daughter

    May theme: kinship terms 👨‍👩‍👧‍👧

    Teaser

    female, doe, filial, Tethys, daughter

    Full Text

    • Teaser: female, doe, filial, Tethys, daughter
    • startbody
    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰewgʰ- to produce, to be strong, to be fruitful, to give milk
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéwgʰ-ti primary verb form
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek τεύχω teúkhō
        • Indo-Iranian *dáwgdʰi to milk
          • Iranian *dáwgdi
            • Western Iranian …
    read more
  28. Word Family - Moa

    April Theme: Birds 🐦

    Teaser

    moa, manuk

    Full Text

    • Sino-Austronesian?
      • Proto-Austronesian *manuk bird
        • Malayo-Polynesian
          • Bajau memanuk bird
          • Javanese ꦩꦤꦸꦏ꧀ manuk bird
          • Malayic *manuk
            • Malay manuk bird, chicken
          • Phillipine
            • Tagalog manók chicken
          • Oceanic
            • Micronesian
              • Chuukese machang bird
              • Kiribati man bird
            • Polynesian *manu bird
              • Tongan manupuna bird
              • Nuclear Polynesian
                • Samoan manu bird …
    read more
  29. Healy-Price Family Tree

    Thu 12 April 2018

    Healy-Price Family Tree

    The Healy-Price extended family tree, with consanguine, affine, and fictive family.

    Spoiler warning: major and minor spoilers from throughout the InCryptid books and short stories.

    Version 2: Updated through Tricks for Free.

    Healy-Price Extended Family Tree

    read more
  30. US Presidential Elections PCA

    Sun 18 February 2018

    US Election Principal Component Analysis

    Summary: While the alliance of US states to particular parties fluctuates, regional voting blocks are much more persistent. The primary regional voting blocks are Union North vs. Confederate South and Urban East vs. Rural West.

    Skip to Methodology

    Data Visualizations

    Maps

    Principal Component 1

    Principal …

    read more
  31. Word Family - Taran

    February theme: Weather ⛈️

    Teaser

    Thor, thunder, astonish, tornado, detonate, Tarquinia

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *(s)tenh₂- thunder [1]
      • Proto-Indo-European *(s)ténh₂e-ti to thunder
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian steneti
          • Slavic *stenàti to groan, to moan
            • East Slavic стенати stenati
              • Russian стена́ть stenátʹ to groan, to moan (archaic)
            • South Slavic
              • Bulgarian сте́на sténa …
    read more
  32. Word Family - Rex

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This is the #WordFamilyFriday that no matter how long I work on it, it's never done. That's what I get for trying to explore the possibility that two extremely important and productive roots may be connected: *h₂er-, related to cosmic order, and *h₃reǵ-, related to societal …

    read more
  33. Word Family - Geyser

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    This root has been reconstructed as *ǵʰew-, *ǵʰewH-, *gewH, *gʷewH, *gʷewh₂, which is an unusually high amount of variation, and with different combinations of the definitions I've listed, but:

    1. It's an unusual amount of variation in the phonological reconstruction, but still awfully similar.
    2. Looking at any …
    read more
  34. Word Family - Bid

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    *bʰewdʰ- vs. *gʷʰedʰ-: two families that end up being super confusing in Germanic languages, since *bʰ and *gʷʰ merge at the beginning of a word. In English, they end up being homophones with complementary/opposite meanings: "offer" vs. "ask for".

    I had to do these two …

    read more
  35. Word Family - Diurnal

    December theme: Religion 📿

    Introduction

    We start religion words with *dyḗwos ph₂tḗr, Old Father Shining-Sky himself.

    Interestingly English "day" is not from this root, despite similarity to many IE words for day, e.g. Latin diēs, etc. Germanic d corresponds to Latin f (PIE ); Latin d corresponds to Germanic t …

    read more
  36. Word Family - Nectar

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Teaser

    innocent, noxious, necromancer, nectar

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *neḱ- to perish, to disappear
      • Proto-Indo-European *néḱy-eti perishes, disappears imperfective
        • Indo-Iranian *náĉyati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit नश्यति naśyati to be lost, to perish, to disappear, to be gone
          • Iranian
            • Avestan nasiieiti
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Parthian nʾsyd
      • Proto-Indo-European …
    read more
  37. Word Family - Death

    November theme: Mes de Muertos 💀

    Introduction

    A root meaning "to run, to depart" can be reconstructed from Hellenic and Indo-Iranian. But in Northwest branches, Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, and possibly Italic, there is a phonologically identical root meaning "to die". So it's probably a euphemism coined in a Late Northwest Indo-European …

    read more
  38. Word Family - Mummy

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    mu, mummy

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *maʾ-
      • Berber
        • Tashelhit aman water
        • Tuareg ⵎⵏ aman water
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale am water
      • Egyptian 𓈖 mw water, rain, sea, lake
        • Demotic Egyptian mw
          • Coptic ⲙⲟⲟⲩ moou water
          • Egyptian Arabic امبو ʾumbū water, drink childish
          • Ancient Greek μῦ …
    read more
  39. Word Family - Lily

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    lily

    Full Text

    • Afro-Asiatic *ḥrr
      • Egyptian 𓁷𓂋𓂋𓏏𓆰 ḥrr-t flower, blossom
        • Egyptian 𓁹 𓁷𓂋𓂋𓏏𓆰 jrj ḥrr-t to blossom
        • Demotic Egyptian ḥrrj flower
          • Coptic ϩⲣⲏⲣⲉ hrēre flower
          • Fayyumic Coptic ϩⲗⲏⲣⲓ hlēri flower
            • Ancient Greek λείριον leírion lily
              • Serbo-Croatian лије̑р lijȇr lily
              • Latin līlium lily plural …
    read more
  40. Word Family - Elephant

    October theme: Ancient Borrowings 𒅴

    Teaser

    ivory, elephant

    Full Text

    • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *leb-
      • Chadic
        • West Chadic
          • Tangale labata elephant
      • Egyptian 𓍋𓃀𓅱(𓃰,𓌟) ābu elephant, ivory
        • Coptic ⲓⲏⲃ yēb elephant
          • Latin ebur ivory
            • French ivoire ivory
              • English ivory
            • Italian avorio ivory
            • Irish eabhar ivory
        • Sanskrit इभ ibha elephant rare; `हस्त …
    read more
  41. Word Family - Tepid

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    tepid

    Full Text

    • ? Unknown original source
      • Proto-Afro-Asiatic *dp- heat, fire
        • Semitic *di/ap(a)ʔ- heat, be warm
          • Central Semitic
            • Arabic دَافِئ dāfiʾ warm
        • Cushitic
          • Blin dif sweat
          • Gedeo daffa sweat
          • Somali dhidid sweat
      • Proto-Kartvelian *ṭep-
        • Georgian თბილი tbili warm
      • Proto-Indo-European *tep- to be …
    read more
  42. Word Family - Aidan

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Ethiopia, ether, ethereal, Hugh, O'Hea, Hayes, Aidan, Enya, Egan, MacEgan, Keegan, Maddoc, Mogue, Kenneth, edify, edifice, anneal, mareel, estivation

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eydʰ- ignite, fire
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éydʰe-ti burning, igniting primary verb
        • Indo-Iranian *Háydʰati
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit एधते édhate to spread, to grow, to increase, to prosper
        • Hellenic …
    read more
  43. Word Family - Fire

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    pyro-, empyrean, fire

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂- presumed verb root
      • Proto-Indo-European *péh₂wr̥ fire, bonfire
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒉺𒀪𒄯 pa-aḫ-ḫur fire, torch, campfire, fever
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *pyrь remains of a fire, ashes, cinders
            • East Slavic
              • Russian пыре́й pyréj couch grass
            • West Slavic
              • Polish perz couch grass
              • Polish …
    read more
  44. Word Family - Ignite

    September theme: Fire 🔥

    Teaser

    Agni, ignite, wonga

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥gʷnis fire animate, elemental fire as opposed to <*péh₂wr̥>: fire as an inanimate/contained substance
      • Balto-Slavic *ungnis
        • Lithuanian ugnìs fire
        • Slavic *õgnjь
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ого́нь ogónʹ fire, light, weapons fire
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian о̀гањ òganj fire …
    read more
  45. Word Family - Aqua

    August theme: Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    Avon, Punjab, island, Scandinavia, aquarium, sober

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep- water, body of water
      • Anatolian *h₂epo river
        • Hittite *hapa river
          • Hittite 𒄩𒉺𒀀 ḫa-pa-a toward the river
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian ùpė river
      • Celtic *abonā river
        • Brythonic *aβon
          • Welsh afon river
          • English Avon
            • English Stratford-upon-Avon
        • Old Irish …
    read more
  46. Word Family - Water

    August theme: Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

    Teaser

    vodka, water, hydrogen, otter

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *wed- water animate, elemental water as opposed to passive, standing water: <*h₂ep->
      • Proto-Indo-European *wódr water oblique form: <*udén->
        • Pre-Albanian *udrijā
          • Albanian ujë water
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒉿𒀀𒋻 wa-a-tar water
        • Balto-Slavic *wandō water
          • Lithuanian vanduõ water, flow, current
            • Lithuanian …
    read more
  47. Word Family - Human

    August theme: Earth and Water 🌎🌊

    Introduction

    August and September will be element themed, starting with two "earth" families.

    Teaser

    chthonic, Demeter, George, geometry, Daoine Sidhe, human

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰōm earth
      • Albanian dhe earth
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒋼𒂊𒃷 te-e-kán earth
      • Balto-Slavic *źemē earth
        • Lithuanian žẽmė land, earth
          • Lithuanian Žemyna Earth Mother …
    read more
  48. Word Family - Edge

    July theme: Miscellaneous 🔨

    Teaser

    oxygen, vinegar, axe, hammer, hear

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱ- sharp
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂oḱós sharp
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek ὀξύς oxús sharp, pointed, clever, swift
            • French oxygène oxygen Greek technical formation "sharp-forming", for oxygen's role in forming acids
              • English oxygen
              • Translingual O
            • Ancient Greek ὀξύμωρος oxúmōros a witty saying …
    read more
  49. Word Family - Seven

    July theme: Miscellaneous 🔨

    Introduction

    This week begins a very loose July "theme" of a handful of miscellaneous everyday words, before we move into some strongly themed months for most of the rest of the year.

    For 2017-07-07, I just had to do "seven".

    All words mean "seven" unless otherwise specified …

    read more
  50. Word Family - Avatar

    June theme: Pride In Words 🏳️‍🌈

    Teaser

    avatar, trans-, nectar, through

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- to cross over, pass through, overcome
      • Proto-Indo-European *térh₂e-ti primary verb form
        • Indo-Iranian *tárHati
          • Indo-Aryan *tárHati
            • Sanskrit तरति tarati pass over, float, swim
              • Sauraseni *tiradi
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi तैरना tairnā to float
          • Iranian *tárHatī
            • Avestan titarat̰ overcame …
    read more
  51. Word Family - Fabric

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    fabric, forge, Dobro, daft

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₂bʰ- fit together, fitting, make
      • Proto-Indo-European *dʰh₂bʰén-ti imperfective
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian dabinti to decorate, to beautify
        • Germanic *(ge)dabaną to fit, to be fitting
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 gadaban to happen, to be appropriate
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse dafna thrive …
    read more
  52. Word Family - Silk

    May theme: Cloth 👘

    Teaser

    silk, 絲

    Full Text

    • Old Chinese *slɯ silk, fine thread
      • Middle Chinese silk, fine thread
        • Mandarin silk, fine thread
        • Cantonese si1 silk, fine thread
        • Korean sil thread
        • Vietnamese raw silk, thread
      • Taiwanese si silk, fine thread
      • Ancient Greek Σήρ …
    read more
  53. Word Family - Easter

    April theme: Miscellaneous light and cat words 🦁

    Teaser

    Easter, air, Austria, Australia

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ews- dawn, east
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éwsōs Divinity of Dawn
        • Germanic *auzi
          • Germanic *Auziwandilaz Bright-Wanderer, Dawn-Wanderer, Morning Star personal name
            • East Germanic
              • Gothic 𐌰𐌿𐌶𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌹𐌻 auzandil morning star (Venus), Lucifer
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse Aurvandil
            • West Germanic
              • Old …
    read more
  54. The Annotated Capernaum

    Mon 02 December 2013

    (Transferred from my old WordPress)

    Capernaum is a poem by Lewis Spence, which was set to music by Ed Miller and appears on his album, Border Background (1989). Miller’s arrangement is also the title song on the Tannahill Weaver’s album, Capernaum (1994).

    I own both of those albums …

    read more