Word Family - Diurnal

December theme: Religion 📿

Introduction

We start religion words with *dyḗwos ph₂tḗr, Old Father Shining-Sky himself.

Interestingly English "day" is not from this root, despite similarity to many IE words for day, e.g. Latin diēs, etc. Germanic d corresponds to Latin f (PIE ); Latin d corresponds to Germanic t (PIE d). Germanic used to have a cognate word for "day": *tīnaz, but in English it is preserved only in the t at the end of Lent (*langatīnaz, "long-days", i.e. "spring").

Likewise, Greek θεός theós: "god", is unrelated despite the similarity to Latin deus. Greek θ also comes from PIE , so would also correspond to Latin f, not d.

Teaser

Zeus, Jove, journal, diurnal, journey, (the) Dagda, Jupiter, Tuesday, daeva, deity, diva, divine, Lent

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *dyew- to be bright, sky, heaven
    • Proto-Indo-European *diwós bright
      • Indo-Iranian
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit दिवस divasa day
            • Sauraseni
              • Pali divasa day
                • Thai ทิวส
            • West Indo-Aryan
              • Gujarati દી day
              • Romani dives
            • Marathi दिवस divas
            • Telugu దివసము divasamu
    • Proto-Indo-European *diwoh₁ bright
      • Old Armenian տիւ tiw day, daytime
    • Proto-Indo-European *dyḗwos sky, heaven, Dyeus (Indo-European divinity of the Daytime Sky) agentive: ~"brightener, heavener"
      • Anatolian
        • Luwian 𒀭? Tiwaz Divinity of the Sun
      • Celtic *dīyos day
        • Brythonic *dið
          • Welsh dydd day
        • Old Irish día
      • Hellenic *dzeus
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀇𐀺 di-wo Zeus
        • Ancient Greek Ζεύς Zeús Zeus
          • English Zeus
      • Indo-Iranian *dyā́wš
        • Indo-Aryan *dyā́wṣ
          • Sanskrit द्यु dyú heaven, sky, day, fire
        • Iranian *dyā́wš
          • Avestan dyaoš from the sky
            • Persian زاوش Zāvoš from the sky, heavenly, Zeus (greek divinity), Jupiter (planet)
      • Italic *djous day, sky, Jupiter
        • Italic *djēm accusative
          • Latin diēs day back-formed from accusative
            • Sardinian day
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian zi day
            • Western Romance
              • Old French di day
                • French -di
              • Italian day (archaic)
              • Spanish día day
            • Latin diēs Sōlis Sun's day, Sunday
            • Latin diēs Lūnae Moon's day, Monday
            • Latin diēs Mārtis Mars's day, Tuesday
            • Latin diēs Mercuriī Mercury's day, Wednesday
            • Latin diēs Iovis Jupiter's day, Thursday
            • Latin diēs Veneris Venus's day, Friday
            • Latin diēs Saturnī Saturn's day, Saturday
        • Italic *djowes
          • Latin Iovis of Jupiter (genitive)
            • Latin diēs Iovis Jupiter's day, Thursday
              • Sardinian gióvia
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian joi Thursday
              • Western Romance
                • French jeudi Thursday
                • Italian giovedì Thursday
                • Spanish jueves Thursday
        • Italic *djowi
          • Latin Iove from Jupiter (ablative)
            • English Jove
        • Italic *djousnus daily, day-like
          • Latin diurnus daily, of the day
            • Western Romance
              • French jour day
              • Italian giorno day
            • Latin diurnālis of the day, taking place in the day, diurnal
              • Western Romance
                • French journal daily, (daily) diary, (daily) newspaper
                  • English journal
                • Italian giornale (daily) newspaper
              • English diurnal
            • Medieval Latin diurnata A day's work, a day's travel
              • French journée
                • English journey
              • Spanish jornada working day, hike, day trip
              • Welsh diwrnod day (24 hours), a day's activity
      • Proto-Indo-European *dyḗwos ph₂tḗr Father Dyeus
        • Celtic *dēwos ɸatir Father God
          • Celtic *sindos dago-dēwos ollo-ɸatir The Good God, All Father
            • Old Irish in Dagdae, Ollathair The Good God, All Father
              • Old Irish in Dagdae The Dagda
                • Irish in Daghdha The Dagda
                  • English (the) Dagda
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit द्यौष्पितृ Dyauṣpitṛ Sky Father, Rigvedic divinity of the sky, possibly father or grandfather of Indra
        • Italic *djous patēr Father Day Sky
          • Latin Iuppiter Jupiter
            • English Jupiter
          • Umbrian 𐌉𐌖𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌄𐌓 iupater Jupiter
      • Proto-Indo-European *átta dyḗwos Father (Dad) Dyeus
        • Anatolian
          • Luwian Tatiš Tiwaz Father Tiwaz
      • Proto-Indo-European *deywós god Vriddhi derivative with vowel in incorrect position for this root, but more common in other roots
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒅆𒍑 sius god
        • Balto-Slavic *deiwas god
          • Lithuanian diẽvas god
          • Slavic *divъ miracle
            • East Slavic
              • Russian ди́во dívo wonder, miracle, marvel
            • West Slavic
              • Polish dziw wonder
          • Finnic *taivas sky, heaven
            • Estonian taevas sky, heaven
            • Finnish taivas sky, heaven
        • Celtic *dēwos god
          • Brythonic *duɨw god
            • Welsh duw god
          • Old Irish día god phonologically recollapsed with "day"
            • Irish dia god
          • Gaulish *dēuos
            • Gaulish devona goddess, or the divinity of springs specifcally
              • Latin Divona Gallo-Roman divinity of Bordeaux's sacred spring
        • Germanic *Tīwaz god generally, or Tyr specifically, divinity of Law and Heroic Glory
          • West Germanic
            • Old English Tīw Tyr
            • Old High German
          • Old Norse Týr Tyr
            • Danish
            • Icelandic Týr Tyr
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐍄𐌴𐌹𐍅𐍃 teiws Tyr
          • Germanic *Tīwas dagaz Tuesday, Tyr's day calque of Latin dies Martis, "Mars' day"
            • West Germanic
              • Old English tiwesdæġ Tuesday
                • English Tuesday
                • Scots Tysday Tuesday
              • Old High German zīostag Tuesday
                • German Ziestag Tuesday (dialectic)
            • Old Norse tý(r)sdagr Tuesday
              • Danish tirsdag Tuesday
              • Finnish tiistai Tuesday
        • Indo-Iranian *daywás god
          • Indo-Aryan *daivás
            • Sanskrit देव devá god, divine, idol
              • Sauraseni
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi देव dev deity, god, deva
              • Telugu దేవుడు dēvuḍu god, cloud
              • Malay dewa god
          • Iranian *daywáh
            • Avestan daēuua (false) god, daeva
              • English daeva
              • Western Iranian
                • Old Persian 𐎭𐎡𐎺 daiva false god, daeva, demon
                  • Persian دیو dêv demon, daeva
                    • Arabic دِيُو diyū daeva
                    • Ottoman Turkish دیو div demon, jinn, giant
                      • Turkish dev giant, colossus, huge
                      • Serbo-Croatian див div giant
                    • Armenian դեւ dew demon, evil spirit, ghost
                    • Georgian დევი devi giant, monster, dragon
                  • Aramaic דיוא‏ daywā demon, evil spirit
        • Italic *deiwos god
          • Oscan 𐌃𐌄𐌝𐌅𐌀𐌝 deívaí
          • Latin deus god
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian zeu god
            • Western Romance
              • French dieu god
                • Haitian Bondye
              • Italian dio god
              • Spanish dios god
                • Quechua dyus god
                • Tagalog diyos god
            • Latin ad deus to god, farewell
              • Western Romance
                • French adieu farewell, goodbye
                • Italian addio goodbye, farewell
                • Spanish adiós goodbye, farewell
            • Latin deitās divinity, deity, the nature of a god
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian zeitate deity
              • Western Romance
                • French déité deity
                  • English deity
                • Italian deità godhood, divinity, deity
                • Spanish deidad deity
          • Latin dīvus divine, godlike, godly, deified mortal
            • Western Romance
              • Italian divo god, star/celebrity (deified mortal)
                • English diva
            • Latin dīvīnus of a god
              • Western Romance
                • French divin divine
                  • English divine
                • Italian divino divine, heavenly
                • Spanish divino divine, heavenly
        • Proto-Indo-European *dey- reinterpreted root
          • Proto-Indo-European *deynos day
            • Balto-Slavic
              • Lithuanian dienà day, daytime, time, era
              • Slavic *dь̑nь day
                • East Slavic
                  • Russian день denʹ day, daytime, afternoon
                • South Slavic
                  • Serbo-Croatian да̑н dȃn day
                • West Slavic
                  • Polish dzień day, daytime
            • Germanic *tīnaz day
              • Germanic *langatīnaz spring lit. "long-days"
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English lencten spring, Lent
                    • English Lent
                  • Old High German lenzin
                    • German Lenz spring
              • Germanic *sintīnaz daily [1]
                • East Germanic
                  • Gothic 𐍃𐌹𐌽𐍄𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃
            • Indo-Iranian
              • Indo-Aryan *dinám day
                • Sanskrit दिन diná day
                  • Magadhi
                    • Bengali din day
                  • Sauraseni
                    • Madhya
                      • Hindi दिन din day, time
                    • Pahari
                      • Punjabi ਦਿਨ din day
                  • Telugu దినము dinamu day, daytime
            • Italic *dinos
              • Latin -din-
                • Latin nūndinus market-day [2]

Visual

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Collected English words

Zeus, Jove, journal, diurnal, journey, (the) Dagda, Jupiter, Tuesday, daeva, deity, diva, divine, Lent

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Gothic 𐍃𐌹𐌽𐍄𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 (sinteins): "daily, always" (reconstructed Germanic *sintīnaz) is a compound of something and "day": "go-day"?, "old-day"?, "sense-day"?, "one's-own-day"?

  2. ^

    Latin nūndinus is literally, "nine-day", meaning what we would describe as "every eight days", because Latin counts days inclusively on both sides.