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  1. Word Family - Brother

    Teaser

    brother, pal, friar

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *bʰréh₂tēr brother
      • Anatolian
        • Lydian 𐤡𐤭𐤠𐤱𐤭𐤳𐤦𐤳 brafrsis brother, community member
      • Pre-Armenian *rbayr regular *Br → *rB metathesis
        • Old Armenian եղբայր ełbayr brother
          • Armenian եղբայր ełbayr brother
      • Balto-Slavic *brā́ˀtē
        • East Baltic *brote
          • East Baltic *broterė́lis diminutive
          • Lithuanian brólis brother
        • Slavic *bràtrъ
          • East Slavic братъ …
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  2. Word Family - Autism

    Introduction

    Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew: "away from, since, again" cannot be formally tied to *h₂epó: "off, away", but the similarity is suggestive. Perhaps Pre-Proto-Indo-European *b became either *p (by fortition) or *w (by lenition) in almost all cases, accounting for the paucity of *b in PIE.

    In any case, the later (re …

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  3. Word Family - Dragon

    Introduction

    Dragon tears.

    The etymology of dragon (Classical Greek δράκων drákōn) is not certain, but is traditionally linked to δέρκομαι dérkomai: "to see, to watch".

    "Derkomai…really?" Not so odd: The aorist active participle (m.) of δέρκομαι dérkomai is δρακών drakṓn—the only difference from δράκων drákōn is the placement …

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  4. Word Family - Hawaii

    Introduction

    Dr. Melenaite Taumoefolau makes a compelling and intriguing argument: that Nuclear Polynesian *sawaiki: "traditional/mythological homeland"—whence Hawaii—may be a cognate of *sau ʔariki borrowed from the Tongic branch into Nuclear Polynesian. (Note that *sawaiki can only be reconstructed to NP, it is not present in Tongic or …

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  5. Word Family - Karma

    Teaser

    terahertz, Britain, Stepanakert, Paris, karma

    Full Text

    • Early Proto-Indo-European
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒆪𒂊𒅕𒍣 ku-e-er-zi cuts, cuts up, cuts off
        • Cuneiform Luwian 𒆪𒉿𒅈𒋾 ku-wa-ar-ti to cut
          • Cuneiform Luwian 𒆳𒊭𒀸𒊭𒀭 kur-ša-aš-ša-an (military) division?
      • Proto-Indo-European *kʷer- to do, to make, to build, to cause by magic
        • Proto-Indo-European *kʷért root perfective
          • Celtic *kʷert
            • Brythonic …
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  6. Word Family - Penny

    Introduction

    The Mystery of the Penny.

    I've got three families, each a possible origin for West Germanic *panning: "penny", possible borrowings from either Latin patina: "pan" (via variants *patna, *panna), Latin pannus: "cloth, or—less realistically—Punic 𐤐𐤍 pene: "face".

    I prefer the explanation that the first pennies were small …

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  7. Word Family - Cis

    Introduction

    The attempt to brand cis(gender) as a slur is not truly about the word itself—they wouldn't be any happier with any other word that was used for the same meaning—but an attempt to deny the very category of "cisgender" and thus by extension the existence of …

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  8. Word Family - Tambourine

    Introduction

    There are two west Asian wander words for musical instruments: *pandVr- and tabVr-. *pandVr- mostly means a stringed instrument, and tabVr- mostly means a kind of drum, but that is not consistent.

    The *p-d and *t-b could possibly be metathesis of place of articulation, while leaving voicing in place …

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  9. Word Family - Vet

    Introduction

    I've included (possibly) two families again in this one, Proto-Indo-European *wet-: "year, year-old" and Proto-Indo-European *wósr̥: "spring (season)". There's no formal connection, but it's not hard to imagine on either the phonetic or the semantic level.

    Acrostatic *ó-r̥ nouns like *wósr̥ are from very early PIE. You could imagine …

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  10. Word Family - Cook

    Teaser

    cook, coach, quiche, cake, kitchen, culinary, apricot, Pepsi, biscuit, Budapest

    Full Text

    • Early Proto-Indo-European
      • Anatolian *pekʷ- to pound, to crack grain
        • Hittite pakkušš- to pound, to crack, to crush, to grind
          • Hittite 𒉺𒀝𒋗𒉿𒀭 pa-ak-šu-wa-an cracked? ground? (of grain)
          • Hittite 𒉺𒀝𒆪𒍑𒋗𒅈 pa-ak-ku-uš-šu-ar a tool for crushing grain
        • Lydian 𐤥𐤹𐤡𐤠𐤲𐤶𐤫𐤯 wćpaqẽnt …
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  11. Word Family - Elf

    Teaser

    albino, auburn, daub, oaf, elf, Alfred, Oberon, Elbe, Arpad, Alps

    Full Text

    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂elbʰós white
      • Anatolian *albós
        • Hittite 𒀠𒉺𒀸 alpas cloud
      • Hellenic *alpʰós
        • Classical Greek ἀλφός alphós alphos, leprosy with white lesions
          • Latin alphos
            • English alphos
      • Italic *alβos white
        • Latin albus white, bright, pale, gray, fortunate
          • Central Romance
            • Dalmatian …
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