Word Family - Aqua

August theme: Elements So Slow 🌎🌊

Teaser

Avon, Punjab, island, Scandinavia, aquarium, sober

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ep- water, body of water
    • Anatolian *h₂epo river
      • Hittite *hapa river
        • Hittite 𒄩𒉺𒀀 ḫa-pa-a toward the river
    • Balto-Slavic
      • Lithuanian ùpė river
    • Celtic *abonā river
      • Brythonic *aβon
        • Welsh afon river
        • English Avon
          • English Stratford-upon-Avon
      • Old Irish
        • Irish abhainn river
      • Celtic *adberos river mouth, estuary
        • Brythonic *aber river mouth, estuary
          • Welsh aber estuary
        • Old Irish
          • Scottish Gaelic aber river mouth
            • Scottish Gaelic Obar Dheathain mouth of the River Don, Aberdeen
              • English Aberdeen
    • Indo-Iranian *Hā́pš- water
      • Indo-Aryan
        • Dardic
          • Kashmiri آب āb water
        • Sanskrit अप् ap water
          • Pali āpa water
      • Iranian
        • Avestan 𐬀𐬞 ap water
        • Pashto اوبه obë water
        • Western Iranian
          • Kurdish av water
          • Old Persian *ap-
            • Persian آب âb water, liquid, juice, river, honor
              • Persian پنجاب panjâb Punjab lit. five rivers
                • English Punjab
            • Old Persian 𐎠𐎱𐎡𐎹𐎠 apiya into the water
        • Iranian *abgenag crystal, glass [1]
          • Northern Iranian
            • Scythian
              • Alanian *äväg
                • Hungarian üveg glass, bottle
              • Ossetian авг avg glass, bottle
          • Western Iranian
            • Northwestern Iranian
              • Parthian
              • Armenian ապակի apaki glass, drinking-glass, bottle
            • Old Persian
              • Persian آبگینه âbgine glass, drinking-glass, bottle
      • Nuristani
        • Ashkun âbo water
        • Kamviri óa water
    • Italic *af
      • Italic *afnis
        • Latin amnis river, current, torrent
          • Latin amnicola dwelling by a river
            • French amincole river dwelling, riparian (zoological)
    • Tocharian
      • Arshian āp water, river
      • Kushean āp water, river
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ékʷeh₂ [2]
      • Germanic *ahwō water, stream, river
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌰𐍈𐌰 aƕa river
        • Old Norse á river
          • Danish å river, creek, stream
          • Icelandic á river
        • West Germanic
          • Old English ēa water, river, stream
            • Old English edēa turning-water
              • English eddy
        • Germanic *awjō flood plain, island
          • Old Norse ey island
            • Old Norse Geirsey Geirr's Island, Jersey
              • English Jersey
            • Danish ø island
            • Icelandic ey island
              • Icelandic Surtsey Surtr's Island [3]
          • West Germanic
            • Old English īeġ island
              • Old English iġeoþ little island
                • English eyot
                • English ait
            • Old High German
              • German Aue flat wooded meadow by a river
          • Germanic *awjōlandą island
            • West Germanic
              • Old English īġland island
                • English island [4]
              • Dutch eiland island
          • Germanic *Skaþinawjō harm-island, Scania cf. scathe
            • Old Norse Skáney
              • Danish Skåne
              • Icelandic Skánn Scania
              • Medieval Latin Scania
                • English Scania
            • Latin Scandinavia Scandinavia, Zeeland
              • English Scandinavia
          • Germanic *Batawjō good-island, Batavia
            • West Germanic
              • Frankish
                • Dutch Betuwe
            • Latin Batāvī Batavians A Germanic tribe in modern day Netherlands
              • Latin Batavia Land of the Batavi
                • English Batavia
              • Latin Castra Batavis Fortress at Batavia
                • German Passau
      • Italic *akʷā water
        • Oscan 𐌀𐌀𐌐𐌀 aapa water
        • Latin aqua water
          • Sardinian abba water
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian apă
          • Western Romance
            • French eau water, rain
              • Haitian Creole dlo water
              • Louisiana Creole French dolo water
            • Italian acqua water
            • Spanish agua water
          • English aqua
          • Latin Aquae Granni Waters of (the Gaulish god) Grannus
            • West Germanic *Axxa
              • Frankish
                • French Aix(-la-Chapelle)
              • Old High German Ahha
                • German Aachen
          • Latin aquor I fetch water
            • Latin aquātiō the fetching of water, watering, rains
              • Western Romance
                • Italian acquazzone rainstorm, cloudburst, shower
                • Italian guazzo mud, gouache
                  • French gouache gouache
                    • English gouache
          • Latin aquārium water carrier, aqueduct
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian apar water-vendor
            • Western Romance
              • Old French ewer water jug, ewer
                • English ewer
              • Italian acquaio kitchen sink
            • English aquarium
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₁egʷʰ to drink [2]
      • Anatolian
        • Hittite 𒀀𒆪 a-ku to drink
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek νήφω nḗphō be sober, refrain from drink ne-pho, not-drunk
          • Greek νηφάλιος nifálios calm, sober, dispassionate, not drunk
      • Tocharian *yok-
        • Arshian yok- to drink
        • Kushean yok- to drink
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēgʷʰ-rios drunk
        • Italic
          • Latin ēbrius drunk, intoxicated
            • Western Romance
              • French ivre drunk, intoxicated
                • French enivrer to intoxicate
              • Italian ebbro drunk, intoxicated, beside oneself, enraptured
              • Spanish ebrio drunk
            • Latin inēbriō I intoxicate
              • Western Romance
                • Italian inebriare to intoxicate
              • English inebriate
            • Latin sōbrius sober, not drunk se-ebrius, "without-drunk"
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian sobru
              • Western Romance
                • French sobre sober
                  • English sober
                • Italian sobrio sober, moderate
                • Spanish sobrio sober, moderate
              • Germanic *subri sober, chaste, clean
                • West Germanic
                  • Old English sȳfre clean, sober
                  • Old High German sūbar clean
                    • German sauber clean, tidy

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

Avon, Stratford-upon-Avon, Aberdeen, Punjab, eddy, Jersey, eyot, ait, island, Scania, Scandinavia, Batavia, aqua, gouache, ewer, aquarium, inebriate, sober

Footnotes

  1. ^

    Iranian *abgenag: "glass" from *ab: "water", compare vitrum, last week.

  2. ^

    *h₂ep- "water", *h₂ékʷeh₂ "water", *h₁egʷʰ "drink" are not morphologically derivable from each other within reconstructed Proto-Indo-European. But the combined phonological and semantic similarity certainly suggest a common descent from an older language.

  3. ^

    Surtsey: "Surtr's Island" is a volcanic island that emerged off the coast of Iceland in 1963 named after Surtr, Lord of the Fire Giants, who will engulf the Earth in flames at Ragnarok.

  4. ^

    The insertion of 's' in island is a 16th modification due to confusion with the unrelated word isle, which was borrowed from Old French isle (Modern French île, following the regular deletion of 's' in that position) from Latin insula of uncertain origin.