Word Family - Human

August theme: Earth and Water 🌎🌊


August and September will be element themed, starting with two "earth" families.


chthonic, Demeter, George, geometry, Daoine Sidhe, human

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *dʰéǵʰōm earth
    • Albanian dhe earth
    • Anatolian
      • Hittite 𒋼𒂊𒃷 te-e-kán earth
    • Balto-Slavic *źemē earth
      • Lithuanian žẽmė land, earth
        • Lithuanian Žemyna Earth Mother goddess
        • Lithuanian žemýnas continent
      • Slavic *zemljà earth, soil, land
        • East Slavic
          • Russian земля́ zemljá earth, soil, land
            • Russian Но́вая Земля́ Nóvaja Zemljá New Land (place name)
              • English Novaya Zemla
              • English Nova Zembla
        • West Slavic
          • Polish ziemia earth, soil, land
    • Celtic *gdū
      • Old Irish spot, place
    • Hellenic
      • Ancient Greek χθών khthṓn ground, soil, earth, country
        • English chthonic within or under the earth, related to the underworld
        • Ancient Greek αὐτόχθων autókhthōn indigenous
          • English autocthonic earliest inhabitant of an area, aborigine
        • Ancient Greek χᾰμουλκός khamoulkós a kind of machine, a crane? lit. "earth-dragger"
          • Latin chamūlcus a kind of chariot
            • French camion truck (freight motor vehicle) one of several possible origins
              • Italian camion truck
              • Serbo-Croatian камѝо̄н kamìōn truck
              • Spanish camión truck, bus
              • Turkish kamyon truck
    • Indo-Iranian
      • Indo-Aryan
        • Sanskrit क्ष kṣa field, fieldworker, peasant
      • Iranian
        • Avestan 𐬰𐬃 zā̊
        • Northern Iranian
          • Scythian
            • Ossetian зӕхх zæxx Earth, soil, earthen floor
        • Western Iranian
          • Kurdish zevî farmland
          • Old Persian
            • Persian زمین zamin earth, land, soil
              • Persian زمین Zamin Earth (planet)
    • Italic
      • Latin humus ground, soil
        • English humus amorphous organic matter in soil
        • Latin humō I bury
          • Latin exhumō I dig up, I exhume
            • Western Romance
              • French exhumer to exhume
                • English exhume
              • Italian esumare to exhume
              • Spanish exhumar to exhume
    • Thracian *zem Earth
      • Thracian *Zemele
        • Ancient Greek Σεμέλη Semélē Mother of Dionysus
          • English Semele
          • Etruscan 𐌔𐌄𐌌𐌋𐌀 Semla
    • Tocharian
      • Arshian tkaṃ earth, ground
    • ?
      • Hellenic *Da Earth
        • Mycenaean Greek *da Earth
          • Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀚𐀯𐀆𐀃𐀚 E-ne-si-da-o-ne Earth-shaker (Poseidon)
        • Ancient Greek δᾶ Earth
          • Ancient Greek Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr Divinity of the Fertility of the Earth and Harvest [1]
            • English Demeter
      • Hellenic *Ga Earth
        • Mycenaean Greek
          • Mycenaean Greek 𐀔𐀏 ma-ka Mother Earth
        • Ancient Greek γῆ land, earth, country, soil
          • Ancient Greek γαῖᾰ gaîa land, country, earth (material), earth (element)
            • Ancient Greek Γαῖα Gaîa Earth, personified as a goddess
              • Latin Gaea Greek goddess of the Earth
                • English Gaea
              • English Gaia
          • Ancient Greek γεωργός geōrgós tilling the ground, farmer "earth-work"
            • Ancient Greek Γεώργιος Geṓrgios
              • Latin Geōrgius
                • English George
          • Ancient Greek γεωμετρία geōmetría land measurement, surveying, geometry "earth-measure"
            • Latin geōmetria geometry
              • Western Romance
                • French géométrie geometry
                  • English geometry
          • Ancient Greek γεωγράφος geōgráphos geography "earth-drawing"
            • Latin geōgraphia geography
              • Western Romance
                • French géographie geography
                  • English geography
    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰemelo- near the ground
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek χθαμαλός khthamalós sunken, flat, creeping also, epithet of Ithaca
      • Italic
        • Latin humilis near the ground, lowly, humble
          • Western Romance
            • French humble humble
              • English humble
            • Italian umile humble
            • Spanish humilde humble, lower class
          • Old Irish umal humble, obedient
            • Irish umhal humble, obedient
          • Latin humilitās insignificane, humilitian, submissiveness
            • Western Romance
              • French humilité humility
                • English humility
              • Italian umiltà humility
              • Sicilian umirtà humility
                • Italian omertà code of silence, espeically among the Mafia
                  • English omerta
              • Spanish humildad humility
    • Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰmen- on the earth
      • Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰmṓ earthling, human, mortal
        • Balto-Slavic *źmō̃
          • Old Lithuanian žmuõ human, man
            • Lithuanian žmogùs human with some other root mixed in
        • Celtic *gdonyos person
          • Brythonic *dün person, human
            • Welsh dyn folks, man, person
          • Gaulish *-gdonio people, mortals
            • Gaulish 𐌕𐌄𐌖𐌏𐌙𐌕𐌏𐌍𐌉𐌏𐌍 deuogdonion of gods and mortals [2]
          • Old Irish duine person
            • Irish duine person, human
              • Irish daonna human, humane, kindly
              • Irish Daoine Maithe fairies, Aos Sí (lit. the Good People)
              • Irish Daoine Sí fairies, Aos Sí (lit. People of the Mounds)
                • English Daoine Sidhe
        • Germanic *gumô man
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰 guma man
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse gumi man
              • Icelandic gumi man archaic, poetic
          • West Germanic
            • Old English guma man
              • Scots gome man
            • Old High German gomo man
          • Germanic *brūdigumô bride's-man, husband, bridegroom
            • North Germanic
              • Old Norse brúðgumi bridegroom
                • Danish brudgom bridegroom
                • Icelandic brúðgumi bridegroom
            • West Germanic
              • Old English brȳdguma bridegroom
                • English bridegroom [3]
              • Frankish
                • Dutch bruidegom bridegroom
              • Old High German brūtigomo bridegroom
                • German Bräutigam bridgegroom
        • Italic
          • Latin homō human, person, man
            • Sardinian ómine
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian om human
            • Western Romance
              • French homme man
              • Italian uomo man
              • Spanish hombre man
            • Latin hūmānus having to do with humans, humane
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian uman human, humane
              • Western Romance
                • French humain human
                  • English human
                • Spanish humano
              • Latin hūmānitās humanity
                • Western Romance
                  • French humanité humanity
                    • English humanity
                  • Italian umanità humanity
                  • Spanish humanidad humanity


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Collected English words

Novaya Zemla, Nova Zembla, chthonic, autocthonic, humus, exhume, Semele, Demeter, Gaea, Gaia, George, geometry, geography, humble, humility, omerta, Daoine Sidhe, bridegroom, human, humanity


  1. ^

    There are some other possibilities for the first element in Demeter, e.g. des- (as in Desponia), meaning "house", or dea (cf. ζειά), a kind of grain.

  2. ^

    Gallo-Etruscan Vercelli inscription: http://mnamon.sns.it/index.php?page=Esempi&id;=61⟨=en#370

  3. ^

    With the loss of the Old English guma, -gome in Middle English bridegome is conflated with grome (Modern groom) meaning "boy, youth". There are two different possibilities about whether Middle English gome and grome were originally any relation to each other:

    A) grome could be unrelated to gome, and instead related to "grow" and "green", possibly Germanic *grōmô. But that root is usually only used for plant growth (thus, "green"), not human/animal growth.

    Or B) this could be a recollapsing of two words that were originally the same, with gome having been previously modified with an intrusive 'r' to create grome (compare: hoarse from hās and cartridge from cartouche). But the same modification would have had to have happened in other branches of Germanic, compare Icelandic gromr: "boy" vs. gumi: "man (poetic)": and Middle Dutch grom: "boy" vs. gome: "man"