Word Family - Moon

October theme: Nighttime 🌃

Teaser

measure, meal, moon, month, medicine, modem, accommodate

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *meh₁- to measure
    • Proto-Indo-European *miméh₁-ti reduplicate imperfective
      • Indo-Iranian *mimáHti
        • Indo-Aryan
          • Sanskrit मिमीते mimīte to measure, to mark off
        • Iranian
          • Avestan 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬨𐬍𐬨𐬀𐬚𐬁 framīmaθā set the limits of, assign, authorize
    • Proto-Indo-European *moh₁ros big, great
      • Celtic *māros big, great
        • Brythonic *mọr
          • Welsh mawr large, big, great
        • Old Irish mór big, great
          • Irish mór big, large, great
        • Celtic *Katumāros Battle-Great personal name
          • Gaulish
            • Latin Catumarus
        • Celtic *Lūtumāros Fury-Great personal name
          • Gaulish
            • Latin Lutumarus
          • Lepontic 𐌋𐌀𐌕𐌖𐌌𐌀𐌓𐌖𐌉 Latumarui
        • Celtic *Segomāros Victory-Great personal name
          • Gaulish
            • Ancient Greek Σεγομαρος Segomaros
        • Celtic *mārāti to enlarge
          • Old Irish móraid to make great, to glorify, to praise, to increase
        • Gaulish
          • Byzantine Greek μάραον máraon sweet chestnut a large nut
            • Italian marrone chestnut, chestnut tree, chestnut brown
              • French marron chestnut, brown
                • English maroon
    • Proto-Indo-European *mēh₁rós big, great
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Slavic *-měrъ
          • Slavic *Voldiměrъ Great-Power personal name [1]
            • East Slavic Володимѣръ Volodiměrŭ [1]
              • Ukrainian Володи́мир Volodýmyr
              • Danish Valdemar [1]
                • English Valdemar
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic Владимѣръ Vladiměrŭ [1]
                • Old Church Slavonic Vladimȋrъ [1]
                  • Russian Влади́мир Vladímir
                    • English Vladimir
                  • Polish Włodzimierz
      • Germanic *mēraz great, excellent, famous
        • Germanic *mērijaną to praise, to proclaim
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌼𐌴𐍂𐌾𐌰𐌽 mērjan to proclaim, to preach
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse mæra
              • Icelandic mæra
          • West Germanic
            • Old English mǣran
            • Frankish *māren
              • Dutch maren to announce, to make known
                • Dutch vermaren to make famous
                  • Dutch vermaard renowned
          • Germanic *mērijaz famous
            • North Germanic ᛗᚨᚱᛁᛉ mariz
              • Old Norse mærr famous, glorious, illustrious
            • West Germanic
              • Old English mǣre famous, renowned, sterling (silver)
              • Frankish *mēri
                • Middle Dutch mâre famous, honored, prestigious, message, rumor
              • Old High German māri
                • German Mär tidings, news, story
                  • German Märchen fable, fairy tale
        • Germanic *Mērijawīgą Famous-Battle personal name
          • West Germanic
            • Frankish *Mērowīg [2]
              • Latin Meroveus
                • Latin Merovingi the descendants of Meroveus/Merovech
                  • French mérovingien Merovingian
                    • English Merovingian
            • Old High German Mārwīg
        • Germanic *Aþalamērijaz Noble-Famous personal name
          • West Germanic
            • Old English Æþelmǣr
              • English Elmer
            • Frankish Athalmēr
              • Dutch Adelmar
              • Old French
                • Norman Adelmar
                  • Spanish Edelmir
        • Germanic *Raginamērijaz Counsel-Famous personal name
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic Ranamēr
              • Latin Ranamirus
                • Spanish Ramiro
                  • Spanish Ramirez patronymic
        • Germanic *Wiljamērijaz Will-Famous personal name
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse Vilmærr
              • Danish Vilmar
          • West Germanic
            • Old English Wilmǣr
              • English Wilmer
        • Germanic *mēriþō fame, renown, reputation
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌼𐌴𐍂𐌹𐌸𐌰 mēriþa fame
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse mærð
              • Icelandic mærð praise, flattery
          • West Germanic
            • Old English mǣrþo
    • Proto-Indo-European *méh₁tis measurement action noun
      • Albanian mot weather, year
      • Germanic *mēþiz measure, degree
        • West Germanic
          • Old English mǣþ moderation
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek μῆτις mêtis
          • Ancient Greek Μῆτις Mêtis Divinity of Prudence mother of Athena
            • Latin Metis
              • English Metis
      • Italic *mētis
        • Latin *mētis
          • Latin mēta goal post, boundary marker
            • Western Romance
              • Italian meta destination, goal, boundary marker
              • Spanish meta goal, target
          • Latin mētior I measure, I estimate, I traverse, I distribute
            • Latin mēnsus measured, estimated, distributed
              • Latin mēnsūra measuring, standard for measure, amount
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian măsură measure
                • Western Romance
                  • French mesure measure, measurement
                    • English measure
                    • Irish miosúr measure, tape measure
                  • Italian misura measure, measurement, size, moderation
                  • Spanish mesura moderation, mesuring glass
                • Old Irish mesar measure, measuring vessel
                  • Irish measair measure
                • Vulgar Latin mēnsūrō I measure, I estimate
                  • Eastern Romance
                    • Romanian a măsura to measure, to estimate, to judge, to calculate
                  • Western Romance
                    • French mesurer to measure
                    • Italian misurare to measure, to gauge, to survey, to estimate, to appraise, to try on
                    • Spanish mesurar to temper
              • Latin immēnsus immeasurable, boundless, immense
                • Western Romance
                  • French immense
                    • English immense
                  • Italian immenso
                  • Spanish inmenso
    • Proto-Indo-European *meh₁lom measurement, time
      • Germanic *mēlą measurement, time, occasion, meal time
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌼𐌴𐌻 mēl a point in time, hour
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse mál measurement, size, time, mealtime, meal
            • Danish mål goal, measuring cup
            • Icelandic mál measurement, size, time, mealtime, meal
        • West Germanic
          • Old English mǣl measure, time, occasion, season, mealtime, meal
            • English meal
          • Frankish *māl
            • Dutch maal meal, time, turn, occurrence
          • Old High German māl
            • German Mahl meal archaic
              • German Mahlzeit mealtime, meal
            • Yiddish מאָל mol time, instance, times (multiplied by)
      • Proto-Indo-European *sm̥-meh₁lom one-time
        • Italic
          • Latin semel once, a single time
            • English semel-
    • Proto-Indo-European *méh₁trom instrument noun
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek μέτρον métron something used to measure, rule, weight, length, breadth, meter (poetic)
          • Greek μέτρο métro measure, meter (length), meter (poetry), moderation
          • Latin metrum a measure, meter (poetic)
            • Western Romance
              • French mètre
                • English meter
              • Italian metro meter (length), ruler, criterion
              • Spanish metro meter (length), ruler, measuring tape
            • Old English
              • English meter
          • Ancient Greek μετρικός metrikós
            • Latin metricus
              • Western Romance
                • French metrique metric, metrical, meter (poetic)
                • Italian metrica meter (poetic)
                • Spanish métrica meter (poetic)
    • Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁n̥s moon, month the moon measures time
      • Proto-Albanian *māsnja metathesis
        • Albanian muaj month
      • Old Armenian ամիս amis month
        • Armenian ամիս amis month
      • Balto-Slavic *meˀn(e)s-
        • Lithuanian mė́nuo month, moon
        • Balto-Slavic *meˀns(e)nko-
          • Slavic *mě̀sę̄cь moon, month
            • East Slavic
              • Russian ме́сяц mésjac month, moon
            • South Slavic
              • Old Church Slavonic мѣсѧць měsęcĭ moon, month
              • Serbo-Croatian ме̏се̄ц mȅsēc moon, month
            • West Slavic
              • Polish miesiąc month
      • Celtic *mīns
        • Brythonic *mis
          • Welsh mis month
        • Old Irish month
          • Irish month
            • Irish Mí na Nollag December "Month of Christmass/Noël"
      • Germanic *mēnô moon
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌼𐌴𐌽𐌰 mēna moon
        • North Germanic *mānō
          • Old Norse máni the moon
            • Danish måne moon, bald spot
            • Icelandic máni the moon (archaic) replaced by tungl
          • Samic *mānō
            • Northern Sami mánnu moon
              • Northern Sami -mánnu -month used in names of all 12 months
              • Northern Sami mánotbadji month "moon sojourn, time moon takes"
        • West Germanic
          • Old English mōna moon
            • English moon
            • Scots muin moon, month
          • Frankish *māno
            • Dutch maan moon
          • Old High German māno moon
            • German Mond moon, lunar month
        • West Germanic *mēniniz dagaz Monday
          • West Germanic
            • Old English mōnandæg Monday
              • English Monday
              • Scots Monanday Monday
            • Frankish *mānendag
              • Dutch maandag Monday
            • Old High German mānitag Monday
              • German Montag Monday
              • Yiddish מאָנטיק montik Monday
          • Old Norse mánadagr Monday [3]
            • Danish mandag Monday
            • Icelandic mánudagur Monday
            • Finnish maanantai Monday
            • Northern Sami mánnodat Monday
        • Germanic *mēnōþs month
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌼𐌴𐌽𐍉𐌸𐍃 mēnōþs month
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse mánaðr month
              • Danish måned month
              • Icelandic mánuður month
          • West Germanic
            • Old English mōnaþ month
              • English month
              • Scots moneth month
            • Frankish *mānoth
              • Dutch maand month
            • Old High German mānōd month
              • German Monat month
              • Yiddish מאָנאַט monat month
      • Hellenic *mḗns
        • Ancient Greek μείς meís month, visible part of the moon
          • Greek μήνας mínas month
        • Ancient Greek μήνη mḗnē moon
          • Ancient Greek μηνῐ́σκος mēnískos crescent
            • Greek μηνίσκος minískos crescent, meniscus
            • English meniscus
          • Ancient Greek Ἀλκμήνη Alkmḗnē Strength-of-Moon personal name
            • Latin Alcmēnē Alcmene
              • English Alcmene
          • Ancient Greek Μενέλᾱος Menélāos [4]
            • Latin Menelāus
              • English Menelaus
      • Italic *mēns-
        • Latin mēnsis month
          • Sardinian mese month
          • Western Romance
            • French mois month
            • Italian mese month
            • Spanish mes month
          • Latin mēnstruus
            • Latin mēnstruālis monthly, every month
              • Western Romance
                • French menstruel menstrual
                  • English menstrual
                • Spanish menstrual menstrual
          • Latin trimestris three month period
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian trimestru
            • Western Romance
              • French trimestre quarter (year), term, trimester
                • English trimester
              • Italian trimestre quarter (year), three-month period, term, trimester, quarterly payment
              • Spanish trimestre trimester
          • New Latin sēmestris six month period
            • German Semester semester
              • English semester
        • Umbrian 𐌌𐌄𐌍𐌆𐌍𐌄 menzne month
      • Indo-Iranian *mā́Has moon, month
        • Indo-Aryan *mā́Has
          • Sanskrit मास् mā́s moon, month
        • Iranian *mā́Hah
          • Avestan 𐬨𐬂𐬢𐬵 måŋh month, moon
          • Northern Iranian
            • Scythian
              • Ossetian мæй mæj moon, month
            • Pashto مياشت myāšt month
          • Western Iranian
            • Kurdish meh month
            • Old Persian 𐎶𐎠𐏃 māha month, moon
              • Persian ماه mâh moon, month, lovely
                • Hindi माह māh month
          • Iranian *mā́Hhtáwbah moonlight
            • Northern Iranian
              • Sogdian mahtob moon
            • Western Iranian
              • Old Persian
                • Persian مهتاب mahtâb moonlight
        • Indo-Iranian *mā́Hasas of the moon gen.
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit मास mā́sa moon, month
              • Magadhi
                • Bengali মাস mas month
              • Sauraseni 𑀫𑀸𑀲 māsa
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi मास mās month
                • Pali māsa month
              • Telugu మాసము māsamu month
              • Sanskrit ?
                • Maharashtri
                  • Marathi महिना mahinā month [5]
                • Sauraseni
                  • Madhya
                    • Hindi महीना mahīnā month [5]
                  • Pahari
                    • Punjabi ਮਹੀਨਾ mahīnā month [5]
          • Nuristani *mā́sa moon
            • Kamviri mōs moon
      • Tocharian
        • Arshian mañ moon, month
        • Kushean meñe moon, month
    • Proto-Indo-European *meh₁d- to measure, to consider, to give advice, to heal
      • Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁d-eti primary verb
        • Proto-Albanian *matśi
          • Albanian mas to measure
        • Celtic *medeti to measure, to judge
          • Brythonic *mėðɨd to measure, to judge
            • Middle Welsh meddu
          • Old Irish midithir to weight, to judge, to estimate
        • Germanic *metaną to measure
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse meta
              • Icelandic meta to measure, to assess, to esteem
          • West Germanic
            • Old English metan to measure
              • English mete (out)
            • Frankish *metan
              • Dutch meten to measure
            • Old High German mezzan
              • German messen to measure, to complete
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek μέδω médō to protect, to rule over
            • Ancient Greek μέδων médōn ruler, councillor
            • Ancient Greek Μέδουσᾰ Médousa She-Rules
              • Latin Medusa
                • English Medusa
          • Ancient Greek μέδομαι médomai to provide for, to think of, to be mindful of
      • Proto-Indo-European *meh₁deh₁(ye)-ti stative
        • Italic *medēōr
          • Latin medeor
            • Latin medicus
              • Western Romance
                • Italian medico doctor
                  • Italian Medici family name
              • English medic
              • Brythonic *meðïg
                • Welsh meddyg
                  • Welsh meddyglyn metheglin lit. "medicinal liquor"
                    • English metheglin
              • Latin medicīnus medical
                • Latin medicīna medicine, remedy, the practice of healing substantive
                  • Western Romance
                    • Old French
                      • French médecine medicine (field of study)
                      • English medicine
                    • Italian medicina medicine
                    • Spanish medicina medicine
              • Medieval Latin medicālis
                • French
                  • English medical
              • Latin meditor I consider, I contemplate, I plan, I practive, I meditate frequentive
                • English meditate
                • French méditer
                • Spanish meditar
              • Latin remedium remedy, cure, medicine, aid, assistance
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian remediu remedy
                • Western Romance
                  • French remède remedy
                    • English remedy
                  • Italian rimedio remedy, cure, medicine
                  • Spanish remedio remedy, solution, medicine, amendment
                • Latin remedialis
                  • English remedial
      • Proto-Indo-European *mēh₁dyé-ti ye imperfective
        • Tocharian *mei- to think
          • Tocharian *meim
            • Arshian mem thought, thinking
            • Kushean maim thought, thinking
      • Proto-Indo-European *méh₁dtus
        • Celtic *messus
          • Old Irish mess judgement
      • Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁dos
        • Old Armenian միտ mit mind, intellect, understanding, reason, intent, advice
          • Armenian միտք mitkʿ brains, intellect, idea, intention
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek μήδεᾰ mḗdea plan, art, prudence, counsel
            • Ancient Greek μήδομαι mḗdomai to deliberate, to advise, to estimate
            • Ancient Greek Μήδειᾰ Mḗdeia
              • Greek Μήδεια Mídeia
              • Latin Medea
                • English Medea
            • Ancient Greek Ᾰ̓ρχῐμήδης Arkhimḗdēs
              • Greek Αρχιμήδης Archimídis
              • Latin Archimēdēs
                • English Archimedes
      • Proto-Indo-European *moh₁dós
        • Italic *modos
          • Latin modus measure, limit, manner, mode, (grammatical) mood
            • Western Romance
              • Old French
                • French mode fashion, trend, means, mode, (grammatical) mood
                  • English à la mode
                  • Vietnamese mốt fashion, trend
                • English mode
                  • English (grammatical) mood
              • Italian modo manner, way, style, (grammatical) mood
              • Spanish modo way, (grammatical) mood
            • Latin modo just, only, just now, presently
              • Western Romance
                • Italian mo' now regional
                  • Italian a mo' di like, as, by way of
              • Latin quōmodo how lit. "what mode"
                • Vulgar Latin *quōmo how, like, as
                  • Eastern Romance
                    • Romanian cum how, as, because
                  • Western Romance
                    • French comme like, as, how, because
                      • French comment how
                    • Italian come how, as, such as, as soon as
                    • Spanish como as, how, since
              • Medieval Latin Quasimodo the Sunday one week before Easter [6]
            • Latin modicus moderate, restrained, reasonable
              • Western Romance
                • French modique low, modest, limited
                • Italian modico low, modest, reasonable
                • Spanish módico moderate, modest, limited, scarce
              • Latin modicum a little, a small amount
                • English modicum
            • Latin modificō I limit, I control, I regulate
              • Western Romance
                • French modifier to change, to modify
                  • English modify
                • Italian modificare to change, to modify
                • Spanish modificar to modify
            • Latin moderor I limit, I moderate, I restrain, I manage, I control
              • Western Romance
                • French modérer to moderate, to lessen, to weaken
                • Italian moderare to moderate
                • Spanish moderar to moderate
              • Latin moderātus moderated, controlled
                • English moderate
            • Latin modestus moderate, calm, discreet, modest
              • Western Romance
                • French modeste modest
                  • English modest
                • Italian modesto modest, small
                • Spanish modesto modest
            • Latin modulus a small measure, a small piece, a water meter, rhythm or time signature (music)
              • Western Romance
                • Old French modle
                  • French moule mold, matrix, cake pan
                  • English mold
              • English modulus
              • French module
                • English module
              • Latin modulor I measure, I regulate, I beat time, I modulate
                • Western Romance
                  • French moduler to modulate
                  • Italian modulare to modulate
                  • Spanish modular to modulate
                • English modulate
                  • English modem
            • Latin commodus convenient, suitable, pleasant, timely
              • Western Romance
                • French commode convenient
                  • English commode
                • Italian comodo convenient, comfortable
                  • English comodo
                • Spanish cómodo comfortable, convenient, lazy
              • English commodious
              • Latin commodō I make convenient, I adapt, I bestow, I lend, I hire
                • Latin accommodō I adapt, I prepare (for use), I adjust, I accommodate, I support
                  • Western Romance
                    • French accommoder to accommodate
                    • Italian accomodare to repair, to arrange, to accommodate, to be suitable
                    • Spanish acomodar to accommodate, to usher, to settle, to be suitable
                  • English accommodate
      • Proto-Indo-European ?
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Iranian
            • Avestan 𐬨𐬂𐬢𐬵 vīmad physician

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

maroon, Valdemar, Vladimir, Merovingian, Elmer, Wilmer, Metis, measure, immense, meal, semel-, meter, meter, moon, Monday, month, meniscus, Alcmene, Menelaus, menstrual, trimester, semester, mete (out), Medusa, medic, metheglin, medicine, medical, meditate, remedy, remedial, Medea, Archimedes, à la mode, mode, (grammatical) mood, modicum, modify, moderate, modest, mold, modulus, module, modulate, modem, commode, comodo, commodious, accommodate

Footnotes

  1. ^

    The 12th century Danish King, Valdemar I, was named after his maternal great-grandfather, Volodimer II Monomakh, Prince of Kiev (Old East Slavic/Ukrainian)

    Volodimer II Monomakh was in turn the great-grandson of Volodiměrъ I, called (Saint) Vladimir the Great in English and Владимѣръ Vladiměrŭ in Old Church Slavonic. In later Old Church Slavonic, the second morpheme in Saint Vladimir's name was modified by folk etymology to *mȋrъ: "peace, world" instead of *měrъ: "famous, great".

    Side note: on his father's side, Valdemar I was the great-grandson of Sweyn II of Denmark (who was born in England while his uncle Cnut the Great was king of both Denmark and England), and Sweyn II was the great-grandson of Harald Bluetooth, the eponym of the wireless data exchange standard.

    It's also possible that the name was Germanic to begin with (Old Norse Valdemarr, of the same meaning) and adapted to Slavic instead of the other way around. Volodiměrъ I is a member of the Rurikid dynasty and while his father Sviatoslav had a Slavic-origin name, his grandfather Igor (Ingvar) and great-grandfather Rurik (Hrǿríkʀ/Roderick) had Germanic-origin names. The Germanic name Valdemar (*Waldąmēra) would be a perfectly expected name, but it is not attested in Germanic before the Valdemar I. (I also can't think of any other Germanic names that use *waldą as a first element rather than a second element, but many elements can be used in either position.)

  2. ^

    The Frankish king *Mērowīg's name (when not Latinised as Meroveus) is spelled as "Merovech" in the Latin alphabet. This makes sense given on the one hand the Latin V/U/W conflation, and on the other hand likely final-obstruent devoicing in Frankish turning /g/ into [k] or [x]. Final-obstruent devoicing, which now occurs throughout continental West Germanic, probably originates in Frankish: it is first attested in Old Dutch, but Old French also shows signs of final-obstruent devoicing in its Frankish influenced vocabulary.

  3. ^

    West Germanic *mēniniz dagaz, literally "Moon's day" is a calque of Latin dīes Lūnae: "day of the Moon", which in turn is a calque of Ancient Greek hēmérā Selḗnēs. Old Norse is suggested to have calqued mánadagr in turn from one of the West Germanic languages, rather than getting it directly form Latin, or inheriting it from Common Germanic.

    I had to cut off this note at this point, because it was threatened to turn into a full essay on weekday names. I'll complete that later.

  4. ^

    Formally, the first morpheme in "Menelaus" is μένος: "power, rage", or possibly μένω: "I stand fast, I abide, I wait for". But with the precedent of the archaic name "Alkmḗnē", and given that there a quite a number of good reasons to speculate that Helen (Menelaus's wife) is a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European Sun Goddess, Hausos, I have to wonder if "Menélaos": "People's-Rage" might be an eggcorn of an archaic "Ménelaos": "Moon-Warrior".

    Compare also, "the lofty halls of famous Menelaus shone like the dazzling light of sun or moon." From Book 4 of the Odyssey (Wilson 2017 translation).

  5. ^

    The resemblance between Hindi or Punjabi mahīnā meaning "month" and Hawai'ian or Tongan mahina meaning "moon, month" is entirely coincidental. The second is the expected descendant of Proto-Polynesian *masina: "moon", which is a descendent of Proto-Austronesian *siNaʀ: "light" (*ma- is a common productive prefix). Cognates include Tagalog sinag: "sunshine" and Fijian cina: "torch".

  6. ^

    After the traditional entrance antiphon for mass on this day: "Quasi modo geniti infantes..." ("As newborn babes desire the rational milk without guile..."). The character named Quasimodo in Victor Hugo's novel was left at the cathedral as a foundling on this day.