Word Family - Minaret

July theme: Architecture 🏛️


For the end of my architecture theme month, I've put together a collection a few small-but-interesting families with architecture words that I did preliminary research on, before concluding each was too small to a weekly family on its own.




arrow, arch

Full Text

  • Afro-Asiatic *ŋaw- to burn, to blaze
    • Egyptian nwḫ to heat, to scorch
      • Egyptian snwḫ to boil causative
    • Afro-Asiatic *ŋiwr- fire, firelight substantive
      • Chadic *ŋurŋ- ash
        • Central Chadic
          • Gude ŋira-ḍu ash, coal
        • West Chadic
          • Boghom nwur-ǝŋ ash
      • Cushitic *ŋuur-
        • Somali nal light, lamp
      • Semitic *nūr- fire, light
        • Central Semitic *n-w-r
          • Arabic نُور nūr light
            • Arabic نَار nār fire
              • Maltese nar fire
          • Northwest Semitic
            • Aramaic 𐡍𐡅𐡓𐡀 nūrā
            • Canaanite
              • Hebrew נוּר nūr shining fire, light
                • Hebrew נֵר ner candle, single-wick lamp
            • Ugaritic 𐎐𐎗 nīru fire
          • Central Semitic *m-n-w-r noun of place or instrument
            • Arabic مَنَارَة manāra lighthouse, beacon, minaret
              • Persian مناره menâre minaret
                • Ottoman Turkish مناره minare
                  • Turkish minare minaret
                  • French minaret
                    • English minaret
            • Northwest Semitic
              • Aramaic 𐡌𐡍𐡓𐡕𐡀 mənārəṯā candlestick, lighthouse
              • Canaanite
                • Hebrew מְנוֹרָה m'norá light, lamp, menorah
                  • English menorah
              • Ugaritic 𐎎𐎐𐎗𐎚 mnrt candlestick, candelabra
        • East Semitic
          • Akkadian 𒉡𒌨(𒌝) nūru(m) light, fire, lamp
        • South Semitic
          • Old South Arabian 𐩬𐩥𐩧 nwr

  • Egyptian 𓅙-𓃀:𓏏*𓊌 ḏbt brick, block, ingot [1]
    • Demotic Egyptian tb brick
      • Coptic ⲧⲱⲃⲉ tobǝ brick
        • Arabic طُوب ṭūb brick, backed brick, adobe
          • Amharic (እ)ጡብ (ʾə)ṭub brick, tile
          • French toub mud brick, adobe
          • Spanish adobe adobe from the definite الطُوب aṭ-ṭūb
            • English adobe

  • Unknown substrate
    • Balto-Slavic
      • Latvian ẽrcis juniper
      • Slavic
        • East Slavic
          • Russian раки́та rakíta willow, sallow, broom
        • South Slavic
          • Serbo-Croatian српски rakita purple willow
    • Hellenic
      • Classical Greek ἄρκευθος árkeuthos juniper, cedar
    • Celtic *wareka?? [2]
      • Brythonic *gwarɨg bow, arc
        • Breton gwareg bow, arc, arch
          • Breton Gwareg placename: Arc possibly referring to a bend in the Blavezh River
          • French Gouarec
        • Cornish gwarak arc, arch, bow, crescent, yoke
    • Northwest Indo-European *h₂érkʷo- bow, arrow
      • Celtic *wareka?? [2]
        • Brythonic *gwarɨg bow, arc
          • Breton gwareg bow, arc, arch
            • Breton Gwareg placename: Arc possibly referring to a bend in the Blavezh River
            • French Gouarec
          • Cornish gwarak arc, arch, bow, crescent, yoke
      • Germanic *arhwō arrow
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic *arƕa
            • Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐍈𐌰𐌶𐌽𐌰 arƕazna dart, missile
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse ǫr arrow
            • Icelandic ör arrow, directed edge (graph theory)
            • Old Norse Ǫrvar Arrows (personal name)
              • Icelandic Örvar
              • Swedish Orvar
        • West Germanic
          • Old English earh arrow
            • English arrow
      • Italic
        • Latin arcus arc, bow, rainbow
          • Central Romance
            • Italian arco bow, arc, arch
              • Italian arcata arcade, span (of a bridge)
                • French arcade arcade
                  • English arcade
          • Eastern Romance
            • Aromanian arcu bow
            • Romanian arc bow, arch
          • Western Romance
            • Old French arc bow, arch
              • French arc bow, arc, arch
              • English arc
            • Old French arche bow, arch
              • French arche
              • English arch
            • Spanish arco bow, arc, arch
          • Latin arcuārius of bows, bowyer, archer
            • Vulgar Latin *arcārius
              • Eastern Romance
                • Romanian arcar bowyer, bowmonger archaic
              • Western Romance
                • Old French
                  • French archier
                  • English archer
                  • Italian arciere
                • Spanish arquero archer, goalkeeper


Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

minaret, menorah, adobe, arrow, arcade, arc, arch, archer


  1. ^

    Egyptian 𓅙-𓃀:𓏏*𓊌 ḏbt: "(clay) brick" is interestingly similar to Sumerian 𒁾 dub: "(clay) tablet".

  2. ^

    There is an apparently Late Northwest Indo-European word *h₂érkʷo-, meaning "arrow" in Germanic *arhwō and "bow, arc" in Latin arcus. This is probably a substrate borrowing, and probably the same substrate as gives words for trees suitable for making bent-branch objects like bows in Balto-Slavic—Latvian ẽrcis: "juniper", Russian раки́та rakíta: "willow, broom"—and Greek ἄρκευθος árkeuthos: "juniper, cedar".

    Brythonic *gwarɨg: "bow, arc" (apparently something like Celtic *wareka) is a fairly poor sound match to *h₂érkʷo- and the others, but it is an exact semantic match to the Latin, and just close enough in sound to wonder about. Perhaps it was a separate borrowing from the substrate.

    Brythonic *gwarɨg replaced by bwa in Welsh (a borrowing from Old English), but is preserved in Cornish and Breton. There is even a placename in Brittany named Gwareg (Gouarec in French), possibly referring to an arc in the Blavezh (Blavet) River.