Word Family - Alien

August theme: Science fiction 🤖

Teaser

else, eldritch, alias, alien, ultimate, outrage, other

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h₂el- beyond, other
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos other, another
      • Old Armenian այլ ayl another, other, alien, foreign, also, however
        • Armenian այլ ayl other, but
        • Armenian էլ ēl also, too, anymore
        • Armenian էլի ēli again, more
      • Celtic *alyos other, second
        • Brythonic *ėl other, second
          • Welsh ail second
        • Gaulish allos
        • Old Irish aile other, second, one (of two)
          • Irish eile other, another, more, next, else
        • Lepontic 𐌀𐌋𐌉𐌏𐌔 alios
      • Germanic *aljaz other, another, else
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌰𐌻𐌾𐌹𐍃 aljis other
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse ella or
            • Danish eller or
            • Icelandic ella or
        • West Germanic
          • Old English elles other, otherwise, different
            • English else
        • Germanic *aljǭ
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌰𐌻𐌾𐌰 alja but, except
        • Germanic *aljar elsewhere locative
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌰𐌻𐌾𐌰𐍂 aljar elsewhere
          • West Germanic
            • Old English ellor elsewhere
            • Frankish *ellar
              • Dutch elders elsewhere
        • Germanic *aljalandijaz other country, abroad, exile
          • West Germanic
            • Frankish
              • Dutch ellende misery
            • Old High German elilenti
              • German elend miserable, wretched
        • Germanic *aljasitjaną other dweller
          • West Germanic
            • Old High German Elisāzo
              • German Elsass Alsace
              • French Alsace
                • English Alsace
        • Germanic *aljarīkiją other kingdom
          • West Germanic
            • Old English *elrīċe
              • English eldritch
      • Hellenic *áľľos other, another
        • Ancient Greek ἄλλος állos other, another, different, else
          • English allo-
            • English allele
          • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓λληγορῐ́ᾱ allēgoríā allegory, speech with hidden meaning lit. "other-speech"
            • Greek αλληγορία alligoría allegory
            • Latin allēgoria allegory, parable
              • French allegorie
                • English allegory
      • Italic *aljos
        • Latin alius other, another, else
          • Latin inter alia among other things
          • Latin aliās at another time, in another place, under other circumstances
            • English alias
          • Latin aliēnus
            • Western Romance
              • French alien
                • English alien
              • Italian alieno
              • Spanish ajeno
            • Latin aliēnō
              • French aliéner to alienate
              • Italian alienare to alienate
              • Spanish alienar to alienate
              • Latin aliēnātus
                • English alienate
        • Oscan allo
      • Tocharian *alle-
        • Tocharian *alleke
          • Arshian ālak
          • Kushean alyek
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂óls adverb/preposition
      • Italic
        • Latin uls beyond preposition
          • Latin ulter beyond adjective
            • Latin ulterior more beyond, further
              • English ulterior
            • Latin ultimus most beyond, furthest, last
              • Latin ultima Thule furthest Thule
                • English Ultima Thule
              • Latin ultimō I come to an end, I am at last
                • Latin ultimātus ended
                  • English ultimate
                  • Latin ultimātum
                    • English ultimatum
              • English ultima
          • Latin ultrā beyond, further, additionally
            • Western Romance
              • French outre additionally, as well as
                • French outrer to exaggerate, to outrage
                  • French outrage outrage, insult, contempt
                    • English outrage
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂l̥no other thing noun
      • Italic *olle
        • Latin ille that, those, that one, he/she/it, the [1]
          • English illeism
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂élteros other (of two), second contrastive
      • Italic *alteros
        • Latin alter other, second
          • Sardinian àteru
          • Eastern Romance
            • Romanian alt other
          • Western Romance
            • French autre other, another
              • French altruisme altruism
                • English altruism
            • Italian altro other, another, further, else, previous
            • Spanish otro other, another, again
          • Latin alterō I change, I alter
            • Western Romance
              • French altérer to alter, to change, to cause thirst
                • English alter
          • Latin adulter adulterous, counterfeit, false "towards other"
            • Western Romance
              • French avoutre bastard
            • English adulter
          • Latin altercor I have a difference with, I dispute, I strive against
            • Western Romance
              • Old French alterquer
              • Italian altercare to quarrel, to argue
              • Spanish altercar to dispute, to quarrel, to argue
            • Latin altercātiō dispute, debate, altercation
              • French altercation altercation
                • English altercation
              • Italian altercazione altercation, dispute
              • Spanish altercación altercation
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂énteros second, other [2]
        • Balto-Slavic *ántaras
          • Lithuanian añtras second, secondary
        • Germanic *anþeraz second, other
          • East Germanic
            • Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌸𐌰𐍂 anþar second, other
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse annarr other, another, second, next
              • Danish anden other, another, else, second
              • Icelandic annar other, another, else
          • West Germanic
            • Old English ōþer other, second
              • English other
              • Scots ither other
            • Frankish
              • Dutch ander other, different
            • Old High German andar second, other
              • German anderer
              • Yiddish אַנדער ander other
        • Italic *anteros
          • Italic *anterjōs comparative
            • Latin anterior more forward, foremost, previous
              • English anterior
        • Indo-Iranian *Hántaras
          • Indo-Aryan *Hántaras
            • Sanskrit 𑀅𑀦𑁆𑀢𑀭 ántara distant, different from, exterior, distance, weak side [3]
              • Magadhi
                • Assamese আঁতৰ ãtor
              • Pali
                • Malay antara between, gap
          • Iranian *Hántarah
            • Northern Iranian
              • Scythian
                • Ossetian ӕндӕ́р ændǽr more, else

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Collected English words

else, Alsace, eldritch, allo-, allele, allegory, alias, alien, alienate, ulterior, Ultima Thule, ultimate, ultimatum, ultima, outrage, illeism, altruism, alter, adulter, altercation, other, anterior

Footnotes

  1. ^

    From Latin ille: "that, those, that one, he/she/it" (and in Vulgar Latin "the") come many, many pronouns, articles, and demonstratives in all the Romance languages, too many to spell out here. e.g. French le,la,il, elle, lui, celui, celle, plus plurals, etc., etc.

  2. ^

    *h₂énteros looks like "on" plus the constrastive suffix, which should mean something along the lines of "upper", but instead it has a meaning identical to *h₂élteros; my interpretation is that it is a dissimilative sound change.

  3. ^

    Sanskrit 𑀅𑀦𑁆𑀢𑀭 ántara also means the opposite: "interior, near, related, initimate" due to Indo-Iranian merger of *h₂e and *h₁e, so *h₂énteros: "other" and *h₁énteros: "interior" became homonyms and then collapsed into a single word.