Word Family - Edge

Teaser

oxygen, vinegar, tear, edge, axe, hammer, hear, acoustic, coin, cuneiform

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱ- sharp
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂oḱós sharp
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ὀξύς oxús sharp, pointed, clever, swift
          • French oxygène oxygen Greek technical formation "sharp-forming", for oxygen's role in forming acids
            • English oxygen
            • Translingual O
          • Ancient Greek ὀξύμωρος oxúmōros a witty saying that is seemingly paradoxical, oxymoron "clever-foolish"
            • English oxymoron
          • English oxytocic
            • English oxytocin
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱéh₁ye-ti secondary imperfective
      • Italic *akēō
        • Latin aceō sour
          • Latin acidus sour, tart, acidic, harsh
            • French acide acid, acidic, sour, tart
              • English acid
          • Latin acētum vinegar
            • Sardinian acedhu
            • Western Romance
              • Italian aceto vinegar
              • Spanish acedo sour, tart, a sour juice
            • Old English æċed vinegar
            • English acetate
            • Old High German
              • German Essig vinegar
            • Old Irish aigéd vinegar
              • Irish aigéad acid
            • Old Norse edik vinegar
              • Danish eddike vinegar
              • Icelandic edik vinegar
            • Slavic *ocьtъ
              • East Slavic
                • Russian о́цет ócet vinegar
              • South Slavic
                • Old Church Slavonic оцьтъ ocĭtŭ vinegar
                • Serbo-Croatian о̀цат òcat vinegar
              • West Slavic
                • Polish ocet vinegar
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ḱrós sharp adjective
      • Balto-Slavic *aśras
        • Lithuanian aštrùs sharp
        • Slavic *ostrъ sharp
          • East Slavic
            • Russian о́стрый óstryj sharp, acute, keen, piquant
          • South Slavic
            • Serbo-Croatian о̏штар ȍštar sharp, acute, keen, precise
          • West Slavic
            • Polish ostry sharp, spicy, acute
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἄκρος ákros edge, extreme, top, best, first
          • Ancient Greek ἀκρόπολις akrópolis
            • English acropolis
      • Italic *akris sharp, sour
        • Latin ācer sharp, sour, keen, shrewd
          • Western Romance
            • French aigre
              • English eager [1]
              • French vinaigre vinegar lit. "wine-sour"
                • English vinegar
            • Italian agro sour, vinegary
            • Spanish agrio sour, tangy, bitter
          • Latin acerbus sour, bitter, rough, oppressive
            • French acerbe acerbic, harsh
              • English acerbic
            • Latin acerbātus make sour, make bitter, make worse
              • Latin exacerbātus provoke, exacerbate, thoroughly worsen
                • English exacerbate
          • English acrid
          • French âcre acrid, bitter
          • Old Irish aicher sharp, fierce
            • Irish aichear sharp, keen
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱru a sharp, a bitter, tear deadjectival
        • Anatolian
          • Hittite 𒅖𒄩𒀪𒊒 isḫaḫru tears
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Lithuanian ãšara tear, pearl
        • Indo-Iranian *Háćru
          • Indo-Aryan *Háśru
            • Sanskrit अश्रु áśru tear
              • Maharashtri 𑀅𑀁𑀲𑀼 aṃsu
                • Marathi आसू āsū
              • Pali assu
                • Khmer អស្សុ ʾahsoʾ tear
              • Sauraseni 𑀅𑀲𑁆𑀲𑀼 assu
                • Madhya
                  • Hindi आँसू ā̃sū tear
                • Pahari
                  • Nepali आशू āśū
                  • Punjabi ਅੱਥਰੂ atharū
              • Telugu అశ్రువు aśruvu tear
          • Iranian *Hácru
            • Avestan 𐬀𐬯𐬭𐬏𐬀𐬰𐬀𐬥 asrūazan tears
            • Pashto اوښه óẍa
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish hêstir
              • Old Persian
                • Persian ارس ars tear
              • Old Armenian արտօսր artōsr tear
                • Armenian արտասուք artasukʿ tear, cry
              • Celtic *dakrom
                • Brythonic
                  • Welsh deigryn tear
                • Old Irish dér
                  • Irish deoir tear
              • Germanic *tahrą tear
                • East Germanic
                  • Gothic 𐍄𐌰𐌲𐍂 tagr tear
                • North Germanic
                  • Old Norse tár tear
                    • Danish tåre tear
                    • Danish tår drop, sip
                    • Icelandic tár tear
                • West Germanic *tahr
                  • Old English tēar tear
                    • English tear
              • Germanic *trahnuz tear alternate form
                • West Germanic
                  • Frankish *trān
                    • Dutch traan tear
                  • Old High German trahan
                    • German Träne tear
                  • Old Saxon
                    • Low German Traan tear
                      • German Tran fish oil, whale oil
        • Tocharian *ākru
          • Arshian ākär tear
          • Kushean akrūna tears
        • Proto-Indo-European *dr̥ḱ-h₂eḱru tear lit. "eye-bitter"
          • Proto-Indo-European *dh₂éḱru tear
            • Hellenic
              • Ancient Greek δᾰ́κρῠ dákru tear, sap
                • Greek δάκρυ dákry tear
            • Italic *dakrima
              • Latin lacrima tear
                • Eastern Romance
                  • Romanian lacrimă tear
                • Western Romance
                  • French larme tear, drop
                  • Italian lacrima tear
                  • Spanish lágrima tear
                • Latin lacrimōsus tearful, lamentable
                  • English lachrymose
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱu-s
      • Old Armenian հասկ hask ear (of grain)
        • Armenian հասկ hask ear (of grain)
      • Balto-Slavic *ašus
        • Latvian ass sharp, pointed
      • Germanic *ahaz ear (of grain)
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌰𐌷𐍃 ahs ear (of grain)
        • West Germanic
          • Old English
            • English ear
          • Old High German
            • German Ähre ear (of grain), spike (of a flower)
      • Italic
        • Latin acus needle (sewing or pine), husk
          • Latin acuō sharpen, make pointed, spur, stimulate, exercise, practice
            • Latin acūtus sharp, sharpened
              • Western Romance
                • Old French
                  • French aigu sharp, pointy, acute
                  • English ague
                • Italian aguzzo sharp
                • Spanish agudo sharp, witty, acute
              • English acute
            • Latin acūmen sharpened point
              • English acumen
          • Latin *acūcla small needle
            • Western Romance
              • Emilian gùccia sewing needle
                • Emilian Gucci tailor?? (occupational? surname) [2]
                  • Translingual Gucci
          • Latin aculeus prickle, spine, stinger
            • Vulgar Latin *aculentus
              • Western Romance
                • Old French aiglent sweebriar rose
                  • French églantier wild rosebush
                  • English eglantine
      • Tocharian
        • Kushean āk ear (of grain)
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱh₂enh₂
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian ašnìs
        • Slavic
          • West Slavic
          • Czech osina awn
      • Germanic *aganō chaff
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse
            • Swedish ag fen sedge, saw sedge sharp marsh grasses
        • West Germanic
          • Old English ægnan
            • English awn
          • Frankish *aghn
            • Dutch agen
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἄκανος ákanos thistle
      • Italic
        • Latin agna straw, ear (of grain)
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂oḱyeh₂ optative: ~"it should be sharp"
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian akėčios harrow
        • Latvian ecēšas harrow
      • Germanic *agjō edge, corner
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse egg edge
            • Danish æg
            • Icelandic egg edge of a knife or sword, edge of a mountain
            • Old Norse eggja to incite, to egg on
              • Icelandic eggja to incite, to egg on
              • English egg
        • West Germanic
          • Old English eċġ edge
            • English edge
          • Frankish
            • Dutch eg harrow
              • Dutch eggen to harrow, to plow
                • German eggen to harrow
                  • German Egge harrow
          • Old High German egga
            • German Ecke edge, corner, roughly triangular piece
              • German Dreieck triangle "three-corner"
        • Northern Sami ávju edge
        • Germanic Agi
          • North Germanic
            • Old Norse Eggi
              • Danish Ove
                • German Uwe
          • Germanic Agino
            • West Germanic
              • Frankish Aizino
                • Old French Aisincurt Aizino's farmstead (place name)
                  • English Agincourt
                  • French Azincourt
              • Old High German
                • German Egon
      • Italic
        • Latin occa harrow
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ḱeh₂ noun
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἀκή akḗ point
          • Ancient Greek ἀκακία akakía acacia/shittah tree
            • Translingual Acacia
          • Ancient Greek ἄκᾰνθος ákanthos acanthus, thorn "point-flower"
            • Translingual Acanthus a taxonomic genus of prickly herbs
              • Translingual Pyracantha taxonomic genus of the firethorn shrubs
      • Finno-Ugric
        • Finnic *kaca
          • Finnish kasa corner
        • Ugric
          • Hungarian hegy mountain, tip (of a knife, finger, pencil, etc.)
        • Samic
          • Northern Sami geahčči point
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱstis
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian akstìs thorn
        • Slavic
          • Russian ость ostʹ awn, bristle
      • Celtic *axtīnos gorse
        • Brythonic
          • Welsh eithin gorse
        • Old Irish aiten
          • Irish aiteann gorse
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂egʷsih₂ axe collective? "sharpnesses"?
      • Germanic *akwisī axe
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌰𐌵𐌹𐌶𐌹 aqizi axe
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse øx axe
            • Danish økse axe
            • Icelandic öxi axe
        • West Germanic
          • Old English æx axe
            • English axe
          • Frankish *akus
            • Dutch aks
          • Old High German ackis
            • German Axt axe
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἀξῑ́νη axī́nē axe, axe-head [3]
      • Italic
        • Latin ascia axe, mason's trowel
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ḱmeh₂
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek ἀκμή akmḗ point, edge, highest of culminating point of something
          • English acme
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂éḱmō stone, rock agentive, "sharpener"? "cutter"?
      • Balto-Slavic
        • Lithuanian akmuo stone semantically expected
        • Lithuanian ašmuõ edge, blade phonologically expected
        • Slavic *kàmy stone
          • East Slavic
            • Russian ка́мень stone, rock, cliff, weight
          • West Slavic
            • Polish kamień stone, stone (unit of mass), plaque
      • Hellenic
        • Ancient Greek: ἄκμων ákmōn anvil, pestle, head of a battering ram
          • Greek αμόνι amóni anvil
          • Greek άκμονας ákmonas incus anvil shaped bone in the middle ear
      • Indo-Iranian *Háĉmā stone, hammer, thunderbolt
        • Indo-Aryan *Háśmā
          • Sanskrit अश्मन् aśman
        • Iranian *Háĉmā
          • Avestan asman sky, heaven
          • Pashto اسمان asmān sky, heaven
          • Western Iranian
            • Kurdish esman sky
            • Medean *asman
              • Old Persian 𐎠𐎿𐎶𐎴 asman sky
                • Persian آسمان âsemân
                  • Hindi आसमान āsmān sky
                • Tajik осмон osmon sky
          • Iranian *Haĉangáh stone, weight
            • Avestan asənga- stone
            • Northern Iranian
              • Saka
                • Khotani sam̥gga- stone
                • Old Chinese slaːn ɡaː
                  • Middle Chinese 珊瑚 sɑn ɦuo coral
                    • Mandarin 珊瑚 shānhú coral
                    • Shanghainese 珊瑚 se hhu coral
                    • Cantonese 珊瑚 saan1 wu4 coral
                    • Japanese サンゴ sango coral
                    • Korean 산호 sanho coral
                    • Vietnamese san hô coral
                  • Taiwanese 珊瑚 soan-ô͘ coral
              • Scythian
                • Ossetian дзӕнгъа ʒænǧa
            • Western Iranian
              • Northwestern Iranian
                • Kurdish seng weight
                • Medean *asangáh
                  • Elamite 𒀾𒃻𒀭𒋡 áš-šá-an-ka₄
                  • Old Persian 𐎠𐎿𐎴 asan- stone
              • Old Persian 𐎠𐎰𐎥 aθaⁿga- stone
                • Persian سنگ sang stone, tombstone, weight, value, authority
                  • Coptic ⲃⲁⲥⲛϭ basnc tin with "ba-" prefix based on other metal names
                  • Hindi संग saṅg stone, rock
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱmoros stony
        • Balto-Slavic
          • Slavic *kamorъ rare, most descendants derive directly from *kamy
            • Slovincian kamor stone, rock
        • Germanic
          • North Germanic
          • Old Norse hamarr stone, cliff, hammer
            • Danish hammer hammer
            • Icelandic hamar hammer, cliff
          • West Germanic
            • Old English hamor hammer
              • English hammer
            • Frankish *hamar
              • Dutch hamer hammer
            • Old High German hamar hammer
              • German Hammer hammer
              • Yiddish האַמער hamer hammer
        • Indo-Iranian
          • Indo-Aryan
            • Sanskrit अश्मर aśmará stony
    • Proto-Indo-European ?
      • Italic
        • Latin aciēs sharp edge or point, battle line
          • Late Latin aciārium steel
            • Western Romance
              • French acier steel
              • Italian acciaio steel
              • Spanish acero steel, weapon, arms
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ḱh₂owsyéti hears (well) lit. "is sharp-earing" [4]
      • Germanic *hauzijaną to hear
        • East Germanic
          • Gothic 𐌷𐌰𐌿𐍃𐌾𐌰𐌽 hausjan to hear, listen
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse heyra to hear, to listen
            • Danish høre to hear, to learn
            • Icelandic heyra to hear, to listen
        • West Germanic
          • Old English hīeran to hear, to listen, to obey
            • English hear
          • Frankish *hōren
            • Dutch horen to hear, to be polite, to be supposed to, to belong
          • Old High German hōren to hear
            • German hören to hear, to listen
            • Yiddish הערן hern to hear
        • Germanic *hauzikōną to hark "to hear" + intensifier
          • West Germanic
            • Old English *hercian
              • English hark
            • Frankish *hōrken
            • Old High German hōrechen
              • German horchen to eavesdrop, to hark
      • Hellenic *akouyō
        • Ancient Greek ᾰ̓κούω I hear, I listen, I learn, I obey
          • Ancient Greek ἀκουστικός akoustikós auditory, related to hearing
            • French acoustique acoustic
              • English acoustic
                • Japanese アコースティック akōsutikku acoustic (unamplified)
    • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ḱew- sharp thing, sting
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ḱunyós? An IE form that was suffixed with <*(Ø
        • Italic
          • Latin cuneus wedge, die stamp
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian cui nail, pin
            • Western Romance
              • Old French coi(g)ne
                • French coin wedge, cornerpiece, corner
                • English coin
                  • Japanese コイン koin coin
                • English coign
              • Spanish cuño stamp, die stamp, mark
              • Italian conio die stamp, minting of coins
            • Latin cuneātus wedged, wedge-like
              • Western Romance
                • French cognée axe, hatchet
              • English cuneate
            • Latin cuneifōrmis cuneiform lit. "wedge-shaped"
              • French cunéiforme cuneiform
                • English cuneiform
      • Proto-Indo-European *h₂ḱulis stinging insect
        • Armenian սլաք slakʿ arrow, arrowhead
        • Celtic *kuli
          • Brythonic *kulion
            • Welsh cylion gnats, flies
          • Old Irish cuil fly, flea
            • Irish cuil fly, bug
        • Italic
          • Latin culex mosquito
    • Proto-Indo-European *ḱeh₃- to sharpen [5]
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱoh₃nos
        • Hellenic
          • Ancient Greek κῶνος kônos pine cone, tip, cone
            • Greek κώνος kónos cone
            • Armenian կոն kon cone
            • Latin cōnus
              • Western Romance
                • Old French
                  • French cône cone
                  • English cone
                • Italian cono cone
                • Spanish cono cone
        • Celtiberian ? rabbit?, rabbit burrow? [6]
          • Proto-Basque *Hunx́i
            • Basque unxti rabbit
          • Ancient Greek κόνικλος kóniklos
            • Latin cuniculus rabbit, rabbit burrow, mine
              • Western Romance *cuniclus rabbit
                • Old French connin rabbit
                  • English cony
                    • Welsh cwning rabbit, cony, hyrax
                  • Middle Low German kanīn
                    • Low German Kanien rabbit
                    • Danish kanin rabbit
                    • German Kanin rabbit
                • Italian coniglio rabbit
                • Spanish conejo
                • Mozarabic konélyo rabbit
                  • Mozarabic koncháir greyhound from their use as hare-coursers
      • Proto-Indo-European *ḱh₃tós
        • Italic *katos clever
          • Latin catus clever, cunning, sly [7]
            • Latin Catō
              • English Cato
      • Proto-Indo-Euoprean *ḱeh₃s
        • Italic
          • Latin cos whetstone
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian cute whetstone
            • Western Romance
              • Italian cote sharpening stone, hone

Visual

Image is a visual representation of the text content above.

Collected English words

oxygen, O, oxymoron, oxytocic, oxytocin, acid, acetate, acropolis, eager, vinegar, acerbic, exacerbate, acrid, tear, lachrymose, ear, ague, acute, acumen, Gucci, eglantine, awn, egg, edge, Agincourt, Acacia, Acanthus, Pyracantha, axe, acme, hammer, hear, hark, acoustic, coin, coign, cuneate, cuneiform, cone, cony, Cato

Footnotes

  1. ^

    The modern English meaning of eager is a local innovation. English also kept "sharp, sour" as a secondary meaning until 19thC; that's what Shakespeare usually means by eager, e.g., "It is a nipping and an eager (sharp) air" (Hamlet 1.4.2) or "And curd, like eager (sour) droppings into milk" (Hamlet 1.5.69).

  2. ^

    I can't find anyone suggesting or confirming that Gucci is an occupational surname meaning "tailor" in Emilian (a Gallo-Italic language in Bologna and other parts of Northeast Italy). But without a plausible alternative story (which I also can't find), there is enough circumstanial evidence to tentatively assume that it is.

  3. ^

    Ancient Greek ἀξῑ́νη axī́nē is derivable either from Proto-Indo-European, or from a Semitic borrowing. Compare Akkadian 𒍏𒄩𒍣𒅔 (ḫaṣṣinnu): "axe" and Aramaic חצינא (ḥaṣīnā): "axe" from Semitic *ḥaṣṣ-. Latin ascia and Germanic *agʷésih₂ could also be from the Semitic borrowing, but the evidence is more towards the PIE root for those.

  4. ^

    The word "ear", as in an ear of corn, and "ear", as in the part of your body you hear with are unrelated, from PIE roots *h₂eḱ- and *h₂ows-, respectively.

    The word "hear" is from a compound of both of those roots: *h₂ḱh₂owsyéti from *h₂eḱ- (sharp) + *h₂ows- (ear) + *-yéti (intransitive imperfective verb ending), "to be sharp-earing"

  5. ^

    *ḱeh₃- looks like metathesis from *h₂eḱ- and has the same root meaning, but the o in Greek and o/a alternation in Latin require *ḱeh₃-, not *ḱeh₂-.

  6. ^

    There is apparently an Iberian substrate word of some kind here behind Basque unxti and Greek kóniklos, meaning either "rabbit" or "rabbit burrow" (unclear which way the semantic shift is going). There are a lot of possibilities, but I think the best single option is a Celtiberian word from *ḱoh₃nos: "sharp thing".

    Borrowing of this word from an Iberian substrate is logical given the native range of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus): Iberia, western France, and a bit of northwest Africa. This is also why the Old French descendant connin was widely borrowed in a later wave.

    Compare that "Spain"/"Hispania" is from traditionally thought to be from Phoenician 𐤀𐤉 𐤔𐤐𐤍 ‘i špn: "island of hyraxes/rabbits". Rabbits were a notable feature of Iberia to ancient visitors! Though that may be a very old folk etymology, ‘i ṣpn: "northern/remote/hidden island", ‘i spn "island of smithing" or ‘i spn "island of sailors" are each also plausible on both phonology and semantics.

  7. ^

    Latin catus: "clever, cunning, sly" makes Linaeus' binomial name "Felis catus" (instead of "Felis cattus") for the domestic cat, an (unintentional?) pun.