Word Family - Ignite

September theme: Fire 馃敟


Proto-Indo-European had (at least) two words *h鈧乶胎g史nis: "fire" (grammatically animate) and *p茅h鈧倃r胎 (grammatically inanimate).

Effectively all descendants of *h鈧乪ng史- have lost the labialization, so distinguishing it from reconstructed **h鈧乪ng- is not immediately obivous. It mostly survives only in languages that merge *g and *g史 (Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Albanian, Armenian), with only one descendant in a clearly centum language: Latin ignis, where the labialization is also not present due to the following consonant (compare Latin migr艒 from *h鈧俶ig史r贸-, corresponding to Greek ame铆b艒 from *h鈧俶茅yg史-).

Possibly the clearest indication of original *g史 is Albanian th毛ngjill鈥攖he palatalization to gj happens to original *g史, but not *g, even though *g史 and *g merge otherwise.

Full Text

  • Proto-Indo-European *h鈧乪ng史- to burn, fire
    • Proto-Indo-European *h鈧乶胎g史nis fire
      • Paleo-Balkan *Enji divinity of Fire
        • Albanian En divinity of Fire and Thunder oblique stem enj-
          • Albanian enjte Thursday calque of Latin `鈥嬧(di膿s
        • Messapian *En
          • Messapian *Enni- personal name: of (the god) En
            • Latin Ennius [1]
      • Balto-Slavic *ungnis
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian ugn矛s fire
        • Slavic *玫gnj褜
          • East Slavic
            • Russian 芯谐芯虂薪褜 og贸n使 fire, light, weapons fire
            • Ukrainian 胁芯谐芯虂薪褜 voh贸n使 fire, fireplace, hearth, sunlight, light
          • South Slavic
            • Bulgarian 芯虂谐褗薪 贸g菐n fire, fever
            • Serbo-Croatian 芯虁谐邪褮 貌ganj fire
          • West Slavic
            • Czech ohe艌 fire
            • Polish ogie艅
      • Indo-Iranian *Hagnis
        • Indo-Aryan *agn铆 fire
          • Dardic *agn铆
            • Kashmiri agun
          • Mitanni Aryan
            • Hurrian
              • Hittite 饞饞濔拤岎拝 a-ak-ni-i拧 Mitanni divinity of fire, Agni [2]
          • Sanskrit 饝咅憖曫憗嗮憖︷憖 agn铆 fire, Vedic divinity of fire
            • Pali 饝咅憖曫憗嗮憖曫憖 aggi flame, conflagration, sparks
              • Javanese geni fire
              • Thai 喔副喔勦笝喔 脿k-k谩-nii fire, Agni
            • Sauraseni 饝咅憖曫憗嗮憖曫憖 aggi
              • Madhya Sauraseni
                • Hindi 啶嗋 膩g fire, flame
              • Pahari
                • Nepali 啶嗋啷 膩go fire, flame
                • Punjabi 啜呧┍啜 agga fire
              • Western Sauraseni
                • Romani jag fire
            • Hindi 啶呧啷嵿え啶 Agni Hindu divinity of fire, Agni
            • Telugu 喟呧皸啾嵿皑喟 agni fire, Agni
            • English Agni Kai
      • Italic *蓹ng史nis
        • Latin ignis fire
          • Latin igni艒 I set on fire, I ignite
            • English ignite
          • Latin igneus fiery, burning
            • Central Romance
              • Italian igneo fiery, igneous
            • Western Romance
              • French ign茅 igneous
            • English igneus
          • Latin *Mont膿s Ignis placename: Fire Mountains
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian Mun葲ii Igni葯
    • Proto-Indo-European *h鈧伱硁g史l胎 charcoal, coal, ember
      • Pre-Albanian *ts-angila
        • Albanian th毛ngjill embers, coal, charcoal, carbon
      • Proto-Armenian *anwc煤色-o-
        • Old Armenian 铡债崭謧詹 acu艂 coal, soot
          • Armenian 铡债崭謧窄 acux coal
      • Balto-Slavic *an藔gl铆s coal, charcoal
        • East Baltic
          • Lithuanian angl矛s charcoal, coal, carbon
        • Slavic *谦虁gl褜 coal
          • East Slavic
            • Russian 褍虂谐芯谢褜 煤gol使 coal
            • Ukrainian 胁褍虂谐褨谢褜 v煤hil使 coal
          • South Slavic
            • Bulgarian 胁褗虂谐谢械薪 v菐虂glen charcoal (relational adjective)
            • Old Church Slavonic 勋谐谢褜 谦gl沫
            • Serbo-Croatian 褍虖谐邪褭 葧galj coal, charcoal
          • West Slavic
            • Czech uhel charcoal
            • Polish w臋giel carbon, coal
        • West Baltic
          • Old Prussian anglis coal
      • Indo-Iranian *H谩ng膩ras
        • Indo-Aryan *谩峁単膩ras
          • Dardic
            • Khowar 丕賳诏丕乇 anga谩r fire
            • Ushojo 丕賳诏丕乇 ang脿r blacksmith
          • Sanskrit 饝咅憖楌憗嗮憖曫憖葛憖 谩峁単膩ra charcoal, Mars
            • Pali a峁単膩ra
              • Old Khmer
                • Khmer 釣⑨瀯釤掅瀭釣夺灇 示蓱ngki蓹 Tuesday, Mars
                • Thai 喔副喔囙竸喔侧福 ang-kaan Tuesday, Mars, cremated remains
              • Malay arang charcoal
            • Sauraseni
              • Romani angar coal
                • Angloromani
                  • English wonga [3]
            • Telugu 喟呧皞喟椸熬喟班爱啾 a峁僩膩ramu fire, charcoal
        • Iranian *谩ng膩rah
          • Pashto 丕賳诏丕乇 ang膩r coal, ember
          • Western Iranian
            • Old Persian
              • Persian 丕賳诏卮鬲 ange拧t charcoal


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Collected English words

Agni Kai, ignite, igneus, wonga


  1. ^

    The poet Quintus Ennius鈥攚ho has been called the father of Roman poetry鈥攚as from Apulia and claimed Messapian descent, so his nomen gens, Ennius, was likely a Latinization of an originally theopheoric name referencing the same Illyrian/Balkan god as is preserved in Albanian En and enjte.

  2. ^

    Hittite 饞饞濔拤岎拝 a-ak-ni-i拧: "Mitanni god of fire" is recorded in a 13th century BCE treaty between the Hittites and Mitanni. The treaty invoked the gods of both kingdoms to witness and enforce the treaty.

    Mitanni was a kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (around modern day Syria). Most of the people in Mitanni were culturally Hurrian, and spoke a Hurro-Urartian language, unrelated to either the Indo-European or the Afro-Asiatic languages of the area. But the Mitanni kings and other elite appear to have been culturally Vedic, and close relatives of the speakers of Vedic Sanskrit. Sanskrit-like words especially appear in the names of Mitanni kings and gods, as well as horse-related terminology.

  3. ^

    "wonga" for "money, cash" is London slang, also used in New Zealand as I understand it. The "money"/"coal" equivalency is a thing that comes a couple of different times in historical London slang.