Word Family - Olive

May theme: Plants 🌱


In which "olive oil" is redundant.

The Greek and Armenian words are often interpreted as being from a Mediterranean substrate word. But then there's the Slavic *lȏjь: "tallow, suet". And then the Old Chinese lɯw: "oil, grease", which is plausibly from the Tocharian equivalent of Slavic *lȏjь. And at that point the combination of the three suggests a PIE form along the lines of *h₁loiwom, or some other shared source.


olive, oil

Full Text

  • Mediterranean substrate
    • Greco-Armenian
      • Old Armenian եւղ ewł oil
        • Armenian յուղ yuł oil
        • Georgian იუღი iuɣi oil
      • Hellenic *elaíwā
        • Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀨𐀷 e-ra-wa olive tree
        • Ancient Greek ἐλαία elaía olive, olive tree
          • Greek ελιά eliá olive, olive tree
          • Latin olea olive, olive tree
        • Etruscan 𐌄𐌋𐌄𐌉𐌅𐌀 eleiva
          • Latin olīva olive, olive tree
            • Western Romance
              • French olive
                • English olive
        • Hellenic *élaiwon
          • Ancient Greek ἔλαιον élaion olive oil, any oily substance
            • Byzantine Greek ἐλᾴδιον elā́idion diminutive
              • Greek λάδι ládi oil, olive oil
            • Latin oleum olive oil
              • Western Romance
                • Old French oile
                  • French huile
                  • English oil
              • English petroleum
              • English linoleum
  • Proto-Indo-European *h₁loiwom?
    • Balto-Slavic
      • Slavic *lȏjь tallow, suet
        • South Slavic
          • Old Church Slavonic лои loi tallow
          • Serbo-Croatian ло̑ј lȏj tallow, suet, fat
        • West Slavic
          • Polish łój sebum, tallow, suet
    • Tocharian *läwe?
      • Old Chinese lɯw
        • Middle Chinese jɨu oil, grease, to paint
          • Mandarin yóu
          • Shanghainese hhieu
          • Cantonese jau4
          • Korean yu oil
          • Vietnamese dầu oil, fat, grease
        • Taiwanese


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Collected English words

olive, oil, petroleum, linoleum