Word Family - Emerald

Introduction

Both Classical Sanskrit 𑀫𑀭𑀓𑀢 marakata: "emerald" and Classical Greek μᾰ́ραγδος máragdos: "emerald" appear to be borrowed from a source like *maraktV.

This is presumably a form closely related to the Phoenician brqt and Hebrew baréket: "emerald", from *b-r-ḳ: "shining, sparkling". Akkadian cognate baraqu: "shine" instead might have had an equivalent -t form, which would have looked like *baraqtu(m) which would be an excellent source for *maraktV, though as far as I know, no such -t noun is attested in Akkadian.

Teaser

emerald, Esmeralda

Full Text

  • Afro-Asiatic *bǎrk’- sparkle, flash
    • Semitic *b-r-ḳ
      • Semitic *barVḳ sparkling
        • Central Semitic *baraḳ
          • Arabic بَرَقَ baraqa to shine, to flash, to spark, to lightning
            • Arabic بَرْق barq lightning, telegraph
              • Ottoman Turkish برق berk lightning
                • Turkish berk lightning
              • Maltese beraq lightning
              • Persian برق barq electricity, flash, sparkle, sheen
          • Northwest Semitic
            • Ugaritic 𐎁𐎗𐎖 brq lightning
            • Canaanite
              • Hebrew בָּרָק barák lightning, shine, Barak
            • Aramaic 𐡁𐡓𐡒𐡀 barqā lightning
              • Classical Syriac ܒܪܩܐ barqā lightning
        • East Semitic
          • Akkadian 𒁀𒊏𒄣 baraqu scintillation, shine
            • Akkadian *baraqtu(m) feminine or abstract/collective noun
              • Unknown transmission *maraktV?
                • Classical Greek μᾰ́ραγδος máragdos emerald
                  • Classical Greek σμάραγδος smáragdos emerald
                    • Lithuanian smarãgdas emerald
                    • Latin smaragdus emerald
                      • German Smaragd emerald
                      • Vulgar Latin *smaraldus
                        • Western Romance
                          • Italian smeraldo emerald
                            • Romanian smarald emerald
                          • Old French esmeralde
                            • Spanish esmeralda emerald
                              • Spanish Esmeralda
                                • English Esmeralda
                            • English emerald
                            • French émeraude emerald
                    • Middle Persian 𐭠𐭥𐭦𐭬𐭡𐭥𐭫𐭲 ʾwzmbwlt
                      • Old Armenian զմրուխտ zmruxt emerald
                        • Armenian զմրուխտ zmruxt emerald
                        • Georgian ზურმუხტი zurmuxṭi emerald
                      • Persian زمرد zomorrod emerald
                        • Mandarin 祖母綠 zǔmǔlǜ emerald phono-semantic with : "green"
                        • Ottoman Turkish زمرد zümrüd
                          • Turkish zümrüt emerald
                          • Armenian զմրութ zmrutʿ emerald (dialectic)
                        • Arabic زمرد zumurrud emerald
                          • Swahili zumaridi emerald
                          • Malay zamrud emerald
                        • Russian изумру́д izumrúd emerald
                    • Classical Greek σμαράγδιον smarágdion diminutive
                      • Greek σμαράγδι smarágdi emerald
                    • Czech smaragd emerald
                • Sanskrit 𑀫𑀭𑀓𑀢 marakata emerald
                  • Telugu మరకతము marakatamu emerald
                  • Elu
                    • Sinhala මරා mara
                  • Tibetan མར་གད mar-gad emerald
                    • Mongolian ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳ marɣad emerald
                  • Hindi मरकत markat emerald
                  • Sauraseni 𑀫𑀭𑀕𑀤 maragada emerald
                  • Thai มรกต mɔɔ-rá-gòt emerald
      • Semitic *baraḳ- lightning
        • South Semitic
          • Old South Arabian
            • Sabaean 𐩨𐩧𐩤 brq to lightning, a storm, the rainy season
          • Ethiopic
            • Amharic በረቀ bäräḳä to lightning, to thunder
          • Coptic ⲉⲃⲣⲏϭⲉ ebrēce lightning
        • East Semitic
          • Akkadian 𒉏𒄈 birqu(m) lightning
        • Central Semitic *baraḳ
          • Arabic بَرَقَ baraqa to shine, to flash, to spark, to lightning
            • Arabic بَرْق barq lightning, telegraph
              • Ottoman Turkish برق berk lightning
                • Turkish berk lightning
              • Maltese beraq lightning
              • Persian برق barq electricity, flash, sparkle, sheen
          • Northwest Semitic
            • Ugaritic 𐎁𐎗𐎖 brq lightning
            • Canaanite
              • Hebrew בָּרָק barák lightning, shine, Barak
              • Canaanite
                • Phoenician 𐤁𐤓𐤒𐤕 brkt emerald
                • Unknown transmission *maraktV?
                  • Classical Greek μᾰ́ραγδος máragdos emerald
                    • Classical Greek σμάραγδος smáragdos emerald
                      • Lithuanian smarãgdas emerald
                      • Latin smaragdus emerald
                        • German Smaragd emerald
                        • Vulgar Latin *smaraldus
                          • Western Romance
                            • Italian smeraldo emerald
                              • Romanian smarald emerald
                            • Old French esmeralde
                              • Spanish esmeralda emerald
                                • Spanish Esmeralda
                                  • English Esmeralda
                              • English emerald
                              • French émeraude emerald
                      • Middle Persian 𐭠𐭥𐭦𐭬𐭡𐭥𐭫𐭲 ʾwzmbwlt
                        • Old Armenian զմրուխտ zmruxt emerald
                          • Armenian զմրուխտ zmruxt emerald
                          • Georgian ზურმუხტი zurmuxṭi emerald
                        • Persian زمرد zomorrod emerald
                          • Mandarin 祖母綠 zǔmǔlǜ emerald phono-semantic with : "green"
                          • Ottoman Turkish زمرد zümrüd
                            • Turkish zümrüt emerald
                            • Armenian զմրութ zmrutʿ emerald (dialectic)
                          • Arabic زمرد zumurrud emerald
                            • Swahili zumaridi emerald
                            • Malay zamrud emerald
                          • Russian изумру́д izumrúd emerald
                      • Classical Greek σμαράγδιον smarágdion diminutive
                        • Greek σμαράγδι smarágdi emerald
                      • Czech smaragd emerald
                  • Sanskrit 𑀫𑀭𑀓𑀢 marakata emerald
                    • Telugu మరకతము marakatamu emerald
                    • Elu
                      • Sinhala මරා mara
                    • Tibetan མར་གད mar-gad emerald
                      • Mongolian ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳ marɣad emerald
                    • Hindi मरकत markat emerald
                    • Sauraseni 𑀫𑀭𑀕𑀤 maragada emerald
                    • Thai มรกต mɔɔ-rá-gòt emerald
                • Hebrew בָּרֶקֶת baréket emerald
            • Aramaic 𐡁𐡓𐡒𐡀 barqā lightning
              • Classical Syriac ܒܪܩܐ barqā lightning
    • Egyptian 𓃀*𓏲-𓏭:𓂋-𓈎*(𓏤)-𓄿-𓁻 bwyrqꜣ.EYE to sparkle

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Collected English words

emerald, Esmeralda