Word Family - Elm


*h₁elmos: "wych elm (Ulmus glabra)" shows up with identical meaning in all four of the Late Northwest branches, plus an Albanian with a slightly different meaning. It probably represents a LNW borrowing from an Eastern European substrate language, with Albanian borrowing the term separately from either the same or a closely related source.

Since the Albanian has the form of a diminutive, Pre-Albanian could have had *ulma meaning "elm" and formed *ulmzā, later losing the "elm" meaning.

I met a baby Elowen last week. After initially wondering if it was another example of -wen, I found that it was actually the singulative suffix -en on elow: "elms", like Welsh llwyfen: "elm", llwyf: "elms".


limousine, elm

Full Text

  • Eastern European substrate?
    • Pre-Albanian *ulma
      • Pre-Albanian *ulmzā diminutive
        • Albanian ulzë Tartar maple
    • Northwest Indo-European *h₁elmos wych elm (Ulmus glabra)
      • Balto-Slavic *elemas
        • Slavic *jьlьmъ
          • East Slavic илемъ ilemŭ
            • Russian ильм ilʹm elm, wych elm (Ulmus glabra)
          • South Slavic
            • Slovene ​​lìm elm
          • West Slavic
            • Czech jilm elm
      • Celtic *limos elm from zero-grade *h₁l̥mós
        • Brythonic *lluɨβ̃ elms
          • Cornish elow elms
          • Welsh llwyf elms
          • Old English
            • English (Forest of) Lyme but not the River Lyme
              • English Audlem
              • English Burslem
              • English Lyme Park
              • English Newcastle-under-Lyme
          • Brythonic *lluɨβ̃en elm derived singulative
            • Cornish elowen elm
              • Cornish Elowen personal name: Elm
                • English Elowen
            • Welsh llwyfen elm
        • Old Irish lem
          • Old Irish lemán originally a diminutive, but later just a noun-forming suffix
            • Irish leamhán elm tree
        • Gaulish *lemos
          • Gaulish *Lēmouīcēs ethnonym: Elm Vanquishers? possibly referring to elm bows or spears
            • Latin Lemovices a Gaulish tribe
              • Latin civitas Lemovicum city of the Lemovices
                • Western Romance
                  • Catalan Llemotges
                  • French Limoges
                    • English Limoges
                  • Occitan Limòtges
              • Latin lemovicinus of or related to the Lemovices
                • Western Romance
                  • French limousin(e) of Limoges
                    • English limousin cattle breed
                    • English limousine vehicle
                      • English limo
                      • Japanese リムジン rimujin limousine (vehicle)
                    • French limousinage
        • Gallaecian *lemo
          • Asturian llamera elm
      • Germanic *elmaz elm
        • North Germanic
          • Old Norse almr elm
            • Icelandic álmur elm
            • Old Norse elmi elms collective
              • Danish elm
        • West Germanic
          • Old English elm
            • English elm
          • Frankish
            • Dutch olm elm
          • Old High German elmo
        • Germanic *ulmaz? from zero-grade *h₁l̥mós?
          • West Germanic
            • Old High German ulm elm
              • German Ulme elm
      • Italic *elmos
        • Old Latin *olmus
          • Latin ulmus elm
            • Central Romance
              • Italian olmo elm, field elm (Ulmus minor)
                • Italian olmaria meadowsweet
            • Eastern Romance
              • Romanian ulm
            • Western Romance
              • Old French olme
                • French orme elm
            • Old High German ulm elm
              • German Ulme elm
            • Translingual Ulmus taxonomic genus of elm trees
    • Laz მულა mula wych elm (Ulmus glabra) metathesis of the substrate?


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Collected English words

(Forest of) Lyme, Audlem, Burslem, Lyme Park, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Elowen, Limoges, limousin, limousine, limo, elm, Ulmus